College of Engineering

Biomedical Engineering (EGRB)

EGRB 101. Biomedical Engineering Practicum. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students in the biomedical engineering department and requires permission of course coordinator. This course involves the introduction of clinical procedures and biomedical devices and technology to biomedical engineering freshmen. Students will tour medical facilities, clinics and hospitals and will participate in medical seminars, workshops and medical rounds. Students will rotate among various programs and facilities including orthopaedics, cardiology, neurology, surgery, otolaryngology, emergency medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, oncology, physical medicine, ophthalmology, pediatrics and internal medicine.

EGRB 102. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 151 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam. Biomedical engineering is a multidisciplinary STEM field that combines biology and engineering, applying engineering principles and materials to medicine and health care. This course provides students with an introduction to biomedical engineering, beginning with a framework of core engineering principles, expanding to specializations within the field of biomedical engineering and connecting the concepts to real-world examples in medicine and health care.

EGRB 104. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering majors. This laboratory course introduces students to practical laboratory skills required for biomedical engineering. Following successful completion of this course, students will be able to construct and design simple mechanical-electric prototypes; solder electrical components to a breadboard; construct a bridge measurement circuit in order to measure a physiological signal; use a digital multimeter to analyze a circuit. This course is also a writing-intensive course and will provide students with the skills necessary to analyze and write up the results of their experiments. Non-technical skills that will be introduced in this course include how to set up and maintain a laboratory notebook; record and analyze data in Excel, including how to use Excel formulas, create pivot tables and generate graphs; how to plan and execute an experiment; how to read and write a laboratory report in IMRD format; how to write a design concept paper; oral presentation.

EGRB 105. Successes and Failures in Biomedical Technologies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will look at successes and failures in biomedical engineering and technologies through case studies, as well as consider the ethical implementations and framework for developing evidence-based reasoning. Origins and recent advances in biomedical engineering and technologies will be explored, including applications of biomechanics, bio- and nanotechnologies, medical imaging, rehabilitation engineering and biomaterials.

EGRB 111. Introduction to Biological Systems in Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 151 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam; and CHEM 100 with a minimum grade of B or a satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam. The cell is the principle unit of the human body. In this course, students will explore how the cell works from an engineering perspective. Students will learn the essential functions of cells, the components of cells and terminology related to cell biology. The course will also introduce key concepts in engineering, and students will learn how to apply these concepts to mammalian cells.

EGRB 203. Statics and Mechanics of Materials. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 201 and PHYS 207, both with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering majors. The theory and application of engineering mechanics applied to the design and analysis of rigid and deformable structures. The study of forces and their effects, including equilibrium of two- and three-dimensional bodies, stress, strain and constitutive relations, bending, torsion, shearing, deflection, and failure of materials.

EGRB 209. Applied Physiology for Biomedical Engineers. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 200 and MATH 201, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering students. This course introduces the concepts of mathematical models and describes physiological systems using applied mathematics and engineering principles. Physiological systems will include a comprehensive study of muscle, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine and musculoskeletal, beginning with applied biophysical concepts in cell anatomy and physiology leading into the various physiological systems. This course also incorporates a laboratory that uses the knowledge-based tools gained through lecture and implements them in practice using exercises in biochemical and physiological calculations, osmosis, electrical network simulation of diffusion, EEG, blood pressure, ECG, spirometry and musculoskeletal anatomy.

EGRB 215. Computational Methods in Biomedical Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 201 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: MATH 301, MATH 310 or permission of instructor. Enrollment is restricted to students with sophomore standing in biomedical engineering. The goal of this course is to enhance students' software skills for subsequent biomedical engineering courses and laboratories, as well their careers. The course covers the basic fundamentals of programming in MATLAB, as well as data analysis of biomedical data. An important component of this course is developing problem-solving skills.

EGRB 301. Biomedical Engineering Design Practicum. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 101, EGRB 102, EGRB 203, EGRB 209, EGRB 215, EGRE 206 (or equivalent), each with a minimum grade of C. Restricted to students with junior standing in the biomedical engineering program. Explores the professional and ethical responsibilities of a biomedical engineer. Emphasis will be placed on design issues associated with biomedical engineering, teamwork, regulatory issues and human and animal subjects.

EGRB 303. Biotransport Processes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 209, MATH 301 and MATH 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Course involves the study of fundamental principles of fluid mechanics and mass transport as well as application of these principles to physiological systems. Fluid mechanics principles covered will include conservation of mass and momentum, laminar and turbulent flow, Navier-Stokes equations, dimensional analysis, Bernoulli’s equation, and boundary layer theory. Mass transport principles will include diffusion, convection, transport in porous media and transmembrane transport. Concepts will be applied to studying diffusion in biological tissues, electrolyte transport, vascular transport, blood flow mechanics and cardiovascular flow. The course will also cover organ-specific transport processes, including oxygen transport in the lungs and blood and mass transport in the kidney.

EGRB 307. Biomedical Instrumentation. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 102, EGRB 209, EGRB 215 and EGRE 206, each with a minimum grade of C. A study of the physical principles, design and clinical uses of biomedical instrumentation. Analysis and design of low frequency electronic circuits, which are most frequently used in biomedical instruments, will be conducted. Analysis of biosensors, biopotential electrodes, the measurements of biopotential signals including electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and electromyogram, blood pressure, blood flow, and respiratory system will be conducted. Laboratory work on basic biomedical electronics and instrumentation will be performed.

EGRB 308. Biomedical Signal Processing. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 102, EGRB 209, EGRB 215 and EGRB 307; EGRE 206; MATH 301 and MATH 310, all with a minimum grade of C. Explores the basic theory and application of digital signal processing techniques related to the acquisition and processing of biomedical and physiological signals including signal modeling, AD/DA, Fourier transform, Z transform, digital filter design, continuous and discrete systems.

EGRB 310. Biomechanics. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 203, EGRB 209 and EGRB 215; MATH 200 and MATH 201, all with a minimum grade of C. Corequisites: MATH 301 and MATH 310. A study of the forces, stresses and strains in the human body during normal function. Emphasis is placed on the mechanics of various components of the body including hard (bone) and soft (skin, vessels, cartilage, ligaments, tendons) tissues from a structure-function perspective. Stress and strain relationships for these biomaterials will be analyzed based upon the fundamentals of engineering mechanics. In addition, the distinctive features of biological materials will be studied with respect to their differences from nonliving materials and elaborated upon in laboratory exercises using material evaluation protocols.

EGRB 315. Device Design Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 203, EGRB 215, EGRB 307, MATH 301 and MATH 310, all with a minimum grade of C. The main goal of the course is to introduce a variety of design and prototyping methods for biomedical devices. The focus will be on: (1) using first approximations and Solidworks for mechanical design and (2) using Arduino microcontrollers for controlling sensors and actuators.

EGRB 401. Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 9 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 101, EGRB 102, EGRB 209, EGRB 215, EGRB 301, EGRB 303, EGRB 307, EGRB 308, EGRB 310, EGRB 315 and EGRB 427, all with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in the Department of Biomedical Engineering or by permission of instructor. A minimum of nine laboratory hours per week is dedicated to the design, development and execution of the senior design (capstone) project for biomedical engineering under the direction of a faculty research adviser in biomedical engineering or an acceptable substitute as determined by the course coordinator. Tasks include team meetings (for team projects), brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects. Monthly progress reports are due to the research adviser and course coordinator. At the end of the first semester, each team will orally present to the BME faculty project background information and discuss potential technical approaches and deliverables.

EGRB 402. Biomedical Engineering Senior Design Studio. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 9 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: Completion of EGRB 401 with a minimum grade of C. A minimum of nine laboratory hours per week is dedicated to the design, development and execution of the senior design (capstone) project for biomedical engineering under the direction of a faculty research adviser in biomedical engineering or an acceptable substitute as determined by the course coordinator. Tasks include team meetings (for team projects), brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects. Monthly progress reports are due to the research adviser and course coordinator. Final project reports must be submitted before the end of the semester. All design teams must participate in the College of Engineering public poster session. At the end of the semester and conclusion of the two-semester design process, teams must present their final designs and deliverables before the BME faculty.

EGRB 403. Tissue Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 209 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Enrollment is restricted to students with junior standing in engineering. Study of the design, development and clinical application of tissue engineered components for use in the human body. Analysis of biology, chemistry, material science, engineering, immunology and transplantation as pertains to various tissue engineered components including blood vessels, bone, cartilage, pancreas, liver and skin.

EGRB 405. Finite Element Analysis in Solid Mechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 310 and MATH 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Finite element analysis as presented in this course is a numerical procedure for solving continuum mechanics problems that cannot be described by closed-form mathematical solutions. Emphasis will be placed on understanding the theoretical basis for the method, using a commercial software program, and understanding the volume of information that can be generated. Applications to both one- and two-dimensional problems in solid mechanics and biomechanics will be explored.

EGRB 406. Artificial Organs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 209, EGRB 303, EGRB 307 and EGRB 310, each with a minimum grade of C, or permission of instructor. This course explores the design, operating principles and practices regarding artificial organs and their use in the human body. Analysis of dialysis systems for kidney replacement, artificial hearts and heart assist devices, cardiac pacemakers, sensory organ assist and replacement devices, and artificial liver and pancreas devices. Design aspects, legal ramifications, regulatory issues and clinical implantation issues will be addressed.

EGRB 407. Physical Principles of Medical Imaging. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PHYS 208 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with junior standing in the College of Engineering. A study of the physical principles and basic clinical uses of medical imaging. Analysis of radiation and interaction of radiation, generation and control of X-rays, X-ray diagnostic methods, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonic imaging will be conducted. Basic principle of radionuclide imaging also will be introduced.

EGRB 408. Advanced Biomedical Signal Processing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 308. This course will briefly review the basic theory of discrete-time signal processing techniques in biomedical data processing. Advanced signal processing techniques including adaptive signal processing, wavelets, spectral estimation and multirate signal processing will be employed. Specific examples utilizing electrocardiogram (ECG) and other biological signals are provided. Topics covered are alternance phenomenon in biological systems, late potential in ECG, intrapotential in ECG and coherence analysis.

EGRB 409. Microcomputer Applications in Biomedical Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 307. Covers microcomputer applications (hardware and software) as applied to biomedical science and biomedical engineering. Basic hardware components of a microcomputer are discussed with particular reference to configurations needed for analyzing biomedical events. Software applications including data encoding, data storage, graphical interfaces and real-time processing are explored for analysis of physiological and biomedical signals. Students will develop algorithms using LabView and MatLab to solve problems in biomedical engineering in the laboratories.

EGRB 410. Cellular Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 209 with a minimum grade of C. This course will be a detailed study of the structure and function of the cell from an engineering perspective. Fundamental molecular biology, cell biology and biochemistry topics (cellular structure, signal transduction, cell adhesions, cytoskeleton) will be introduced. Engineering principles (kinetics, transport, mechanics, thermodynamics, electrochemical gradient) will be applied to these topics. Emphasis is placed on methods to disrupt, enhance or mimic in vivo cellular function in biomedical applications.

EGRB 411. Cell Mechanics and Mechanobiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 310 and EGRB 410 with minimum grades of C or permission of instructor. Focusing on cellular-extracellular matrix interactions, students will gain a quantitative understanding of the way cells detect, modify and respond to the physical properties within the cell environment. Coverage includes the mechanics of single-molecule polymers, polymer networks, two-dimensional membranes, whole-cell mechanics and mechanobiology. Mechanobiology topics include cancer and development, pulmonary system, cardiovascular system, and the nervous system. Students will gain understanding of techniques in cellular manipulation and quantification of cellular forces.

EGRB 412. Regenerative Engineering and Medicine. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 209 or equivalent with minimum grade of C. Students will apply fundamental concepts of cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, medicine and pathology, as well as material science and engineering principles to design novel strategies for cell and drug delivery, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Emphasis will be placed on designs and methods to solve current complex biomedical problems.

EGRB 413. Computational and Experimental Models of Cellular Signal Transduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 215 and EGRB 410 with minimum grades of C. Students will study the process by which an extracellular protein binding event is transduced and interpreted as an incoming signal into a cell. Students will learn the biology of cellular signal transduction and will also learn how to apply computational models and experimental techniques to predict and investigate these pathways. Students will follow the course of a protein within a signal transduction cascade, from binding to a receptor, activating intracellular pathways, inducing new transcription and translation and targeting of the protein to its final location. Students will develop MATLAB-based mathematical models to predict signal transduction dynamics, and then will study experimental techniques that are used to both disrupt and measure signal transduction.

EGRB 420. Assistive Technology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 206, EGRB 209, EGRB 215, EGRB 307, EGRB 308 and EGRB 310, all with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering students or with permission of instructor. This course explores the principles and practice regarding the development of assistive technology for individuals with disabilities. The course will address the human user considerations that need to be taken into account in developing technology for individuals with different disabilities or multiple disabilities. It will also provide a general overview of current technology and software algorithms used. The four main areas of assistive technology that will be considered are for the deaf and hard of hearing, individuals who are blind and visually impaired, individuals with cognitive impairments, and individuals with motor impairments.

EGRB 421. Human Factors Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 209 and EGRB 310, both with a minimum grade of C. This course explores the principles and practices regarding ergonomics and human factors engineering and the interaction of biomedical engineering with human function. Analysis of the functions of the human body regarding motion, sensory mechanisms, cognition and interaction with the environment will be included. Interactions of the human body with technology, workplaces, equipment and computers will be examined. Design of workplaces for optimal human performance will be discussed. Analysis of the design and arrangement of controls and displays will be covered.

EGRB 422. Human Performance Measurement Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 209, EGRB 307, EGRB 308 and EGRB 421, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering majors or with permission of instructor. Course explores the principles and practices of human performance measurement including direct and indirect measurement techniques and analysis. Course addresses the subjective, psychophysical and physiological methods related to the measurement, analysis and quantification of human performance.

EGRB 423. Rehabilitation Engineering and Prostheses. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRB 203 and EGRB 209, both with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biomedical engineering majors or with permission of instructor. This course explores the principles and practices regarding the development of rehabilitation therapy devices and prostheses. The course will further address the human user and factors that must be considered when developing devices and engineering solutions for individuals with different therapy and prosthetic needs. The course will also provide a general overview of current technologies and the engineering principles behind these designs.

EGRB 427. Biomaterials. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRB 209 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with junior standing in biomedical engineering or with permission of the instructor. Principles of materials science as it relates to the use of materials in the body. Characterization of biomaterials. Study of the properties of biomedical materials used as implants, prostheses, orthosis and as medical devices in contact with the human body. Analysis of physical, chemical, thermal and physiological response factors associated with materials and implant devices used in the human body.

EGRB 491. Special Topics. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 lecture hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different topics. Advanced study of a selected topic in biomedical engineering. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites, corequisites or restrictions.

Chemical and Life Science Engineering (CLSE)

CLSE 101. Introduction to Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: course open to first-year students majoring in chemical and life science engineering. Introduction to chemical and life science engineering. Topics covered include ethics and social responsibility; engineering design process; engineering solutions; estimations and approximations; dimensions, units and conversions; mathematics and computer solutions; life-long learning; introduction to the interface between engineering, biology and medicine.

CLSE 102. Methods in CLSE. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLSE 101. An introduction to problem formulation and solution methods for chemical and life science engineering. Typical chemical and life science engineering scenarios will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on identifying and formulating problems based on presented scenarios.

CLSE 115. Introduction to Programming for Chemical and Life Science Engineering. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 200. Introduction to the concepts and practice of structured programming. Topics include problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms, objects, basic syntax, control structures, functions and arrays.

CLSE 201. Chemical Engineering Fundamentals I: Material Balances. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 115, CHEM 101 and CHEM 102, and MATH 200 and MATH 201, or equivalents, all with minimum grades of C. The first of two introductory chemical and life science engineering courses. Covers material balances on steady-state chemical processes.

CLSE 202. Chemical Engineering Fundamentals II: Energy Balances and Engineering Thermodynamics. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 201 with a minimum grade of C, CHEM 101-102 and MATH 200-201 or equivalents. The second of two introductory chemical and life science engineering courses. Covers energy balances on steady-state chemical processes, computer-aided balance calculations, balances on transient processes and introduction to thermodynamics.

CLSE 301. Transport Phenomena I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 202 with a minimum grade of C; PHYS 208 and MATH 301. Basic concepts of transport phenomena as applied to chemical and life science engineering. Topics include transport of mass momentum and energy in single and multidimensions.

CLSE 302. Transport Phenomena II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 301 and CLSE 305. Concepts of transport phenomena as applied to chemical and life science engineering. Topics include advanced multicomponent, multiphase systems, integral analysis, and an integrated view of momentum, heat and mass transport in unit operations.

CLSE 305. Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria and Chemical Reactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 202 with a minimum grade of C and MATH 307. Thermodynamic properties of fluids and mixtures, partial molar quantities, phase equilibria, activity coefficients and correlations, equations-of-state, chemical reaction equilibria for liquid, vapor and multiphase reactions, and the use of equations-of-state and activity/fugacity correlations to obtain the thermodynamic functions required for the calculation of chemical reaction equilibrium constants. Computing using Excel VBA is a required component of this course.

CLSE 306. Industrial Applications of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302. Chemical engineering students: EGRC 201 and EGRC 205. A study and analysis of the most important industrial applications of inorganic chemistry, with emphasis on structure/properties correlation, materials and energy balance, availability and logistics of starting materials, economic impact and environmental effects. Crosslisted as: CHEM 306.

CLSE 312. Chemical Reaction Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 301 and 305. Introduces the student to the analysis of reactors via coupling of empirical reaction rates and thermodynamic constraints with reactor material and energy balances. The behavior of the ideal reactor types (batch, CSTR and PFR) is emphasized with attention given to departure from these ideals by real systems.

CLSE 320. Instrumentation Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 6 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 301 and CLSE 305. This laboratory introduces students to a variety of measurement instruments used in modern chemical engineering laboratories and process plants. Detailed laboratory reports are required for each of the experiments undertaken by the students.

CLSE 325. Bioengineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 201 and BIOL 151 or BIOL 152. An introductory and survey level course required for all chemical engineering students. This course introduces concepts and principles of chemical engineering to problems and issues in the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine. Students apply heat and mass transfer concepts, separations and controls to topics that include clinical diagnostics, bioanalytical instrumentation, biosensors and biochips, bioprocess engineering including fermentation, biochemical pathway engineering, protein folding and aggregation, bioreactors and tissue engineering.

CLSE 402. Senior Design Studio I (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: senior standing in chemical and life science engineering and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; CLSE 301, 302, 305 and 312. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

CLSE 403. Senior Design Studio II (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: senior standing in chemical and life science engineering and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; CLSE 402. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

CLSE 405. Process Synthesis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 302, 305 and 312. A senior technical elective. Students synthesize flowsheets for existing and newly proposed chemical and biochemical products. Quantitative tools learned in earlier courses are used to examine the technical and economic feasibility of the flowsheets. Written bi-weekly status reports are required from each student and each student completes a process synthesis and analysis as a semester project.

CLSE 409. Process Control in Chemical and Life Science Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 301 and 305. Covers process control as applied to chemical and life science engineering with many practical examples. Topics include time and frequency domain analysis, multivariable processes and applications to chemical and biochemical production and processing.

CLSE 428. Introduction to Polymer Science and Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 302, 305 and 312, and CHEM 302, or equivalents. A senior technical elective. The course offers an introduction to the chemistry, physical properties and processing of polymers. Topics include step and chain polymerization, structure/property relationships, mechanical properties of plastics and elastomers, solution properties, methods for polymer characterization, and processing techniques.

CLSE 440. Unit Operations Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 6 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLSE 302, CLSE 305 and CLSE 312. Students carry out experiments with chemical and biochemical reactors, energy exchangers, fluid flow networks and other unit operations. Detailed laboratory reports are required for each of the experiments undertaken.

CLSE 450. Undergraduate Research in Chemical and Life Science Engineering. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Up to 6 credits. Undergraduate research under the supervision of a faculty member. Specific topics vary depending on the interests of the student and the adviser. Registration requires approval of the student's academic adviser and research adviser.

CLSE 460. Undergraduate Honors Research in Life Sciences Engineering. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Corequisites: BIOL 218, CLSE 302. An undergraduate honors research course for academically talented juniors and seniors requiring advanced work and an honors thesis on a topic relevant to life sciences engineering. Topics and credit hours will be chosen in consultation with a sponsoring faculty member.

CLSE 461. Stem Cell Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218, CLSE 302. The production and behavior of adult and embryonic stem cells are studied and potential applications for the treatment of disease are surveyed. Stem cell engineering techniques including parthenogenesis, nuclear transfer stem cells and embryonic carcinoma cells are introduced. The use of stem and germ cells for cloning is covered, and ethical considerations involving the use of embryonic human stem cells are discussed.

Computer Science (CMSC)

CMSC 101. Introduction to Computer Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 141 or the equivalent with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to the work of computer scientists, including an overview of current research and application areas as well as career opportunities. Topics include problem-solving, the basics of computer organization, the software engineering life cycle, research resources and social and ethical aspects of technology. Additional topics also include binary, hexadecimal, two’s complement, floating point representation, ASCII and Unicode.

CMSC 191. Topics in Computer Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. This course will teach selected topics in computer science. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

CMSC 210. Computers and Programming. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Introduction to object-oriented programming using Python. The course introduces students to structured programming logic and design techniques. The course content also includes instruction in critical thinking and problem-solving skills using contemporary tools. Specific topics include flowcharting, pseudocode and program control structures, including sequence, selection and repetition. This course is not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Computer Science.

CMSC 245. Introduction to Programming Using C++. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 151 or satisfactory score on the Mathematical Placement Test. Students registering for CMSC 245 must have taken the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. An exception to this policy is made in the case in which the stated alternative prerequisite course has been completed at VCU. Students are expected to have fundamental computer skills. Introduction to the concepts and practice of structured programming using C++. Problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms, objects, basic C++ syntax, control structures, functions and arrays. This course is intended for engineering majors.

CMSC 246. Advanced Programming Using C++. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 245. Advanced programming in C++. Topics include program design, objects, classes, inheritance, files, strings, linked lists, stacks, queues, binary trees, recursion, and basic searching and sorting techniques. This course is intended for engineering majors.

CMSC 255. Introduction to Programming. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: calculus-level placement on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding enrollment in the course, or MATH 151 or equivalent. Students are expected to have fundamental computer skills. Introduction to object-oriented programming using Java. Topics include problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms using control structures, methods, arrays, basic I/O, basic concepts of objects and classes in Java, Java classes for manipulating strings, and introduction to program testing, UML notation and integrated development environments. Students may not receive credit for both CMSC 255 and INFO 250.

CMSC 256. Data Structures and Object Oriented Programming. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 255 with a minimum grade of C; corequisite: CMSC 302. Advanced programming using Java. Topics include introduction to object-oriented design, inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, interfaces, linked lists, stacks, queues, binary trees, recursion, and basic searching and sorting techniques. Continued focus on program testing and UML notation. Students may not receive credit for both CMSC 256 and INFO 350.

CMSC 257. Computer Systems. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 256 with a minimum grade of C. Topics include UNIX essentials; system programming in C; machine-level representation and organization of programs/data, arrays and pointers; types, structs and unions; strings; bit/byte operations; memory management; shell programming; input/output, including file handling; debugging; signals; network programming using sockets; program concurrency using forks and threads; experiments on program performance and optimization techniques.

CMSC 302. Introduction to Discrete Structures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 255 with minimum grade of C. Logic and proofs, sets, functions, sequences and sums, relations, graphs, trees, induction and recursion, advanced counting technique (recurrences).

CMSC 303. Introduction to the Theory of Computation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 302 or the equivalent with a grade of C or better. Complexity classes, grammars, automata, formal languages, Turing machines, computability.

CMSC 311. Computer Organization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 302 with minimum grade of C; corequisite: CMSC 257. Introduction to the basic organization of computers including elementary digital logic design, processor and arithmetic/logic unit design, data paths, memory hierarchy, I/O devices, instruction set architecture and addressing modes.

CMSC 312. Introduction to Operating Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 311 or EGRE 364. Computer systems design, I/O processing, secondary memory organization, command languages, memory management and job scheduling. Students will work in teams to design and implement an operating system simulation.

CMSC 320. Software Engineering and Web Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 210. Introduction to software engineering and web development. The course introduces students to the software development process, including design, development and testing principles. Students will apply these principles in the development of a web application. This course is not applicable for credit toward any College of Engineering degrees.

CMSC 330. Data Science Skills. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 210. Introduction to data science skills. The course introduces students to the foundations of data science and the tools used to collect, analyze and represent data. Students will apply these principles in both analysis and visualization projects. This course is not applicable for credit toward any College of Engineering degrees.

CMSC 340. Cybersecurity Skills. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online). 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 210. Introduction to cybersecurity skills. The course introduces students to cybersecurity terminology, standards and best practices. Students will apply these practices as part of a cybersecurity-focused project. This course is not applicable for credit toward any College of Engineering degrees.

CMSC 355. Fundamentals of Software Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 256 or EGRE 246, either with a minimum grade of C. Provides an overview of how to engineer software systems, including all stages of the software development process based on agile principles. Familiarizes students with modern software tooling and the principles of software quality and testing. Students will work in teams to gain experience in software development methodology, write specification and design documents, and develop a prototype.

CMSC 391. Topics in Computer Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. This course will teach selected topics in computer science. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

CMSC 401. Algorithm Analysis with Advanced Data Structures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 256 with a grade of C or better and CMSC 302 with a grade of C or better. Introduction to algorithm analysis and complexity classes. Advanced data structures topics including multiple linked lists, height-balanced trees, B-trees, hashing and graph representation; incorporating data structures into object-oriented design. Analysis of various searching and sorting algorithms. Algorithm design topics include divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming and greedy methods.

CMSC 403. Programming Languages. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 256 and CMSC 303, both with a minimum grade of C. Survey of representative modern programming languages. Formal definition of programming languages including specifications of syntax and semantics. Precedence, infix, prefix and postfix notation. Global properties of algorithmic languages. Sub-routines, co-routines and tasks. List processing, string manipulation, data description and simulation languages. Run-time representation of program and data structures.

CMSC 404. Compiler Construction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 401 and 403. A first course in compiler theory and construction. Formal description of languages, underlying theory and design techniques for compilers, lexical analysis, syntax analysis, syntax-directed translation, intermediate languages, run-time system management, code generation, code optimization, compiler-building tools.

CMSC 409. Artificial Intelligence. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C and MATH 310. Covers problem spaces, problem-solving methods, game playing, knowledge representatives, expert systems, natural language understanding.

CMSC 410. Introduction to Quantum Computing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 401 and MATH 310, both with a minimum grade of B. Introduction to quantum information processing: state vectors and density operators, tensor product space, unitary evolution, no-go theorems, measurement, qubit, gate model of quantum computing, quantum complexity theory, quantum error correction, quantum algorithms, and quantum machine learning.

CMSC 411. Computer Graphics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 355 and MATH 310. Presents mathematical techniques for graphic development and transformation, curve and surface approximation and projections, graphical languages and data structures and their implementation, graphic modeling.

CMSC 412. Social Network Analysis and Cybersecurity Risks. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. Covers network models, link prediction and analysis, centrality measures, random networks, power-laws and preferential attachment, small world phenomenon and decentralized search, community structure, information propagation in networks, and security and privacy issues in OSNs.

CMSC 413. Introduction to Cybersecurity. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. This course provides introduction and basic concepts of computer security, cyber attacks, cyber defense, cyber forensics and cyber ethics.

CMSC 414. Computer and Network Security. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CMSC 312. This course covers the best practices of computer systems and network security. Key topics include security architecture, cryptographic systems and security management tools.

CMSC 415. Introduction to Cryptography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. This course provides a rigorous and theoretical introduction to modern cryptography. Key topics include symmetric key encryption and authentication, public key encryption, and digital signatures.

CMSC 416. Introduction to Natural Language Processing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. Covers rule-based and statistical methods for creating computer programs that analyze, generate and understand human language. Topics include regular expressions and automata, context-free grammars, probabilistic classifiers, and machine learning. Word-level, syntactic and semantic processing are all considered. Application to real-world problems such as spell-checking, Web search, automatic question answering, authorship identification and developing conversational interfaces.

CMSC 420. Software Project Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 355 with a minimum grade of C. Study of the logistics of team software development. Students work in teams to gain experience in software management and develop the components of a larger software product. Topics include risk management, project planning, quality management, configuration management and software testing.

CMSC 425. Introduction to Software Analysis and Testing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 355 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to majors in the computer science program. A practical introduction to testing complex software applications. An introduction to concepts and techniques used in the analysis of software, including basic and advanced control flow and data flow analyses. Using analytic results to derive test data and validate the correct implementation of programs. Advanced testing strategies including random, structural, mutation and fuzzing.

CMSC 428. Mobile Programming: iOS. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 355, with a minimum grade of C. This course covers the fundamentals of Swift, Xcode and iOS for programming and design of iOS applications. Background in object-oriented programming and access to a computer with Xcode platform is required.

CMSC 435. Introduction to Data Science. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 401 with a minimum grade of C. This course covers understanding, representation, storage, retrieval, preprocessing and analysis of data. Specific topics include data quality and preprocessing, database management systems, data warehouses, selected methods for scalable unsupervised and supervised data analysis, and assessment of results generated by these methods. Students will be engaged in analysis of real-life data from data preprocessing, through data analysis, to the assessment of a knowledge product.

CMSC 440. Data Communication and Networking. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 257 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to majors in the College of Engineering. This course explores computer networking, focusing on the applications and protocols that run on the Internet. Students will take a top-down approach to the layered network architecture, studying applications first and then proceeding down the network “stack” toward the physical link. Students will examine the operation of applications such as the web, FTP, e-mail and DNS. At the transport layer, students will study both connectionless UDP and connection-oriented TCP, with an in-depth study of TCP operation, specifically flow control and congestion control. Data communications are explored through various data routing protocols. Additional topics include network security and wireless/mobile networking.

CMSC 451. Senior Project I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 355 with minimum grade of C; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 or equivalent. Enrollment is restricted to computer science majors with senior standing who have 24 credits in computer science courses. Capstone project or experience for the computer science major; research and presentation methods in computer science. Each student will participate, either individually or as part of a team, in a project or other experience approved by the course coordinator or sponsored by another computer science faculty member. Each student will write and revise a research paper on a technical topic associated with his or her project or experience. Students will submit a detailed written description of their proposed project or experience and will present orally some aspect of what they have learned and/or done during the semester. (This course cannot be counted as upper-level CMSC electives for students graduating under bulletins prior to 2008-09.).

CMSC 452. Senior Project II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CMSC 451 and CMSC 508, both with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in the computer science department. Capstone project or experience for the computer science major; research and presentation methods in computer science; ethical, legal and social issues in computing; and professional responsibilities of computer scientists. Each student will participate, either individually or as part of a team, in a project or other experience approved by the course coordinator or sponsored by another computer science faculty member. Each student will write and revise a research paper on a technical topic associated with his or her project or experience. Students must continue on the same project that was started in CMSC 451. A final project report and presentation, which will include a discussion of associated legal, social and/or ethical issues, are due at the conclusion of the two-semester project or experience. (This course cannot be counted as upper-level CMSC electives for students graduating under bulletins prior to 2008-09.).

CMSC 455. Software as a Service. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 355 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to majors in the computer science program. Students will examine the challenges, opportunities and open problems of software-as-a-service deployed on commodity cloud computing platforms. Covers relevant software architectures and API design principles. Includes concepts of modern software frameworks for software development, cloud computing for software deployment and software operations. Students participate in projects that use modern tooling to develop, deploy and monitor a software application.

CMSC 475. Design and Implementation of User Interfaces. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CMSC 355 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to majors in the computer science program. This course investigates the design and implementation of user interfaces and the evaluation of user experiences. Particular emphasis is placed on creating professional-quality designs and implementations and on evaluating these implementations with end-users. Students will create their own UIs as well as critique others to develop a deep understanding of what works in practice.

CMSC 491. Topics in Computer Science. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated for credit with different content. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. This course will cover selected topics in computer science. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

CMSC 492. Independent Study. 2-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 2, 3 or 4 credits per semester. Maximum 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the departmental discipline. Determination of the amount of credit and permission of instructor and department chair must be procured prior to registration of the course. The student must submit a proposal for investigating some area or problem not contained in the regular curriculum. The results of the student's study will be presented in a report.

Electrical and Computer Engineering (EGRE)

EGRE 101. Introduction to Engineering. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Course open to first-year students majoring in electrical or computer engineering. Introduction to engineering through instruction on basic concepts of engineering. Topics will include an introduction to basic circuit components and circuit analysis, digital logic design and programming. General topics important to all engineers will also be covered, such as mathematics, improving written and oral communication skills, teamwork, ethics and life-long learning. The laboratory introduces fundamental testing, measurement, troubleshooting methodology and proper laboratory notebook maintenance. Engineering design and analysis is also emphasized through a team-based design that involves designing, building and programming a robot.

EGRE 206. Electric Circuits. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 200; and one of EGRE 101 or EGRB 102 or both EGMN 103 and EGMN 190, as applicable per department, all with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: MATH 201. An introduction to electrical circuit theory and its application to practical direct and alternating current circuits. Topics include Kirchhoff's Laws (review from departmental prerequisites, as applicable), fundamental principles of network theorems, transient and steady-state response of RC, RL and RLC circuits by classical methods, time-domain and frequency-domain relationships, phasor analysis and power. Laboratory work, practical applications and integral laboratory demonstrations emphasize and illustrate the fundamentals presented in this course.

EGRE 207. Electric Circuits II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 206, with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to higher level electric circuit theory, including the study of basic active components, such as diodes and operational amplifiers. Emphasis will be placed on design rather than analysis. The laboratory exercises will serve to train students in the art of designing a circuit to perform specific tasks and to conform to specific design parameters.

EGRE 245. Engineering Programming. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 151 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment restricted to electrical and computer engineering majors. Students are expected to have fundamental computer skills. Introduction to the concepts and practice of structured programming using C. Problem-solving, top-down design of algorithms, basic C syntax, control structures, functions, arrays, files and strings.

EGRE 246. Advanced Engineering Programming. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 245 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to electrical and computer engineering majors. Advanced programming for engineering applications in C. Topics include recursion, searching and sorting techniques, data structures, program design and problem solving, and software testing.

EGRE 254. Digital Logic Design. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 101 and EGRE 245 or equivalents, both with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to digital logic design with an emphasis on practical design techniques and circuit implementations. Topics include number representation in digital computers, Boolean algebra, theory of logic functions, mapping techniques and function minimization, design of combinational, clocked sequential and interactive digital circuits such as comparators, counters, pattern detectors, adders and subtractors. An introduction on designing digital circuits using schematic capture, logic simulation and hardware description languages is included. Students will use the above basic skills in the laboratory to design and fabricate digital logic circuits using discrete logic and field programmable gate arrays.

EGRE 303. Electronic Devices. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 306 and MATH 301, both with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to solid state electronic devices covering the fundamentals of atomic structure, band theory, free carrier statistics and charge transport in solids as well as terminal electrical characteristics of semiconductor devices. The course covers basic device physics of p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor junctions, metal-oxide semiconductor capacitors and transistors, light-emitting and -detecting devices, and materials and device characterization methods, including four-probe, Hall effect, I-V, C-V, and carrier lifetime, and optical spectroscopy.

EGRE 306. Introduction to Microelectronics. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 207 and MATH 301, both with a minimum grade of C. This course covers the analysis, modeling and design of electrical circuits which contain electronic devices. Students will learn to design analog circuits to specifications through laboratory problems, a design project and circuit simulation.

EGRE 307. Integrated Circuits. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 306 and EGRE 337, both with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: EGRE 336. Analysis, modeling, design and measurement of advanced MOSFET and bipolar analog integrated circuits. Topics include active filters, differential amplifiers, frequency response and feedback topologies. Operational amplifier circuit topologies are used as a means of studying input, gain, level shift and output stages. Circuit design techniques are explored for mixed signal analog-digital circuits. This course provides the opportunity for a group design project of an integrated circuit chip, using advanced software tools for simulation and physical layout.

EGRE 309. Introduction to Electromagnetic Fields. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 207, MATH 301, MATH 307 and PHYS 208, all with a minimum grade of C. This course provides an introduction to the concept of electromagnetic fields. Topics include electrostatics, magnetostatics, scalar and vector potentials, and work and energy in fields, as well as the analysis and understanding of the phenomena associated with static electric and magnetic fields. Laboratory exercises will serve to reinforce students’ understanding of fields and train them in methods to measure, quantify and analyze electromagnetic phenomena.

EGRE 310. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 309 with a minimum grade of C. This course covers the fundamentals of time-varying electromagnetic fields. Topics include electromagnetic induction, Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation, guided waves, transmission lines and antennas. Laboratory exercises will serve to reinforce students’ understanding of time-varying fields and waves and train them in methods to measure, quantify and analyze dynamic electromagnetic phenomena.

EGRE 334. Introduction to Microfabrication. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 101, MATH 201 and PHYS 208, all with a minimum grade of C. This course gives an overview of microscale device fabrication and testing for a general audience. A wide variety of new terms, equipment and processes are presented. Fundamentals of photolithography, mask making, diffusion, oxidation, ion implantation, film deposition and etching are covered. Laboratory work consists of safety training, hands-on fabrication experience and testing. A laboratory chip test is fabricated from start to finish and then tested. The test chip includes basic integrated circuit elements as well as solar cells.

EGRE 335. Signals and Systems. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 206, EGRE 245 and MATH 301, all with a minimum grade of C. Presents the concept of linear continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems, their classification, and analysis and design using mathematical models. Topics to be covered: linear systems and their classification, differential and difference equations, convolution, Fourier series, Fourier transforms, the Laplace and Z transforms and their application, continuous-time to discrete-time conversion.

EGRE 336. Introduction to Communication Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 337 with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to the theory and application of analog and digital communications including signal analysis, baseband transmission, amplitude and angle modulation, digital modulation, baseband digital communication, and design considerations.

EGRE 337. Statistical Information Processing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 335 with a minimum grade of C. This class presents an introduction to probability, random variables, random processes and statistics with applications in electrical and computer engineering.

EGRE 347. Applied Object-oriented Programming. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 246 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to electrical and computer engineering majors. Object-oriented programming for engineering applications in C++ and other advanced object-oriented languages. Topics include classes and methods, inheritance, templates, and object-oriented program development. The use of standard libraries for applications such as image processing and cryptography will be explored.

EGRE 364. Microcomputer Systems. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 246 and 254, both with a minimum grade of C. Basic computer organization, microprocessor instruction sets and architectures, assembly language programming and the function of computer memory and I/O subsystems will be discussed. The laboratory is designed to reinforce the lectures by providing the opportunity to study the workings of a simple computer system in detail using simulation models and real hardware. Students will write and execute assembly language programs and make use of commercial design automation tools.

EGRE 365. Digital Systems. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 246 and 254, both with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: EGRE 364. Focuses on the design of modern digital systems. Topics covered include: introduction to modeling, simulation, synthesis and FPGA design techniques using VHDL; microprocessor peripherals and interfacing; embedded system hardware and software design issues.

EGRE 404. Senior Design Studio I (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: for electrical engineering majors: EGRE 207, EGRE 246, EGRE 254 and EGRE 335; and completion of three from: EGRE 306, EGRE 309, EGRE 310, EGRE 337 and EGRE 364, or completion of EGRE 347, EGRE 364 and EGRE 365; for computer engineering majors: EGRE 207, EGRE 335, EGRE 347, EGRE 364 and EGRE 365. Corequisite: any electrical or computer engineering technical elective. All prerequisite courses must be completed with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in electrical engineering or computer engineering and participation in a senior design (capstone) project. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGRE 405. Senior Design Studio II (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 404 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in electrical engineering or computer engineering and participation in a senior design (capstone) project. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGRE 406. Senior Design Studio I - VIP (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: for electrical engineering majors: EGRE 207, EGRE 246, EGRE 254, EGRE 335, and three credits of ENGR 497 during the two semesters prior to enrollment; and completion of three from: EGRE 306, EGRE 309, EGRE 310, EGRE 337 and EGRE 364, or completion of EGRE 347, EGRE 364 and EGRE 365; for computer engineering majors: EGRE 207, EGRE 335, EGRE 347, EGRE 364, EGRE 365 and three credits of ENGR 497 during the two semesters prior to enrollment. Corequisite: any electrical or computer engineering technical elective. All prerequisite courses must be completed with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in electrical engineering or computer engineering, and participation in a senior design (capstone) project associated with their vertically integrated project team. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGRE 407. Senior Design Studio II - VIP (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 406 with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with senior standing in electrical engineering or computer engineering and participation in a senior design (capstone) project associated with their vertically integrated project team. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGRE 426. Computer Organization and Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 364 or CMSC 311 with a minimum grade of C. This course presents the foundation for computer design at the register transfer level. Starting from an instruction set architecture, students will learn the process used to design a data path and control unit to implement that instruction set. In addition, the topics of computer components and structures, data paths and control unit organizations, I/O and memory systems, interrupt systems, pipelining, and multiprocessing will be discussed. In addition to reinforcing the lecture material, the laboratory exercises will teach students the art of modeling and designing computer system components using a hardware description language.

EGRE 428. Introduction to Integrated Systems Design. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 364 and EGRE 365, both with a minimum grade of C. This course provides an introduction to senior capstone design for computer engineers. Topics include hardware/software project design methodologies, integrated hardware and software design tools, life cycle costs analysis and requirements and specification analysis. Students are also introduced to concepts and design tools for FPGA and system-on-a-chip devices. Lectures are intended to support tasks required to execute a successful senior capstone experience. These tasks include, but are not limited to, project configuration management, customer interaction skills, requirements elicitation, simulation, procurement, design, testing and validation.

EGRE 429. Advanced Digital Systems Design. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 428 with a minimum grade of C. This course provides students with theoretical and practical foundations for advanced embedded systems design and cyber physical system applications. It extends the concepts introduced in EGRE 428. Special emphasis is placed on the design of advanced embedded computing platforms for cyber physical system applications. Topics covered include: introduction to cyber physical systems; cyber physical systems theory; FPGA and system-on-a-chip design environments; designing, developing and implementing cyber physical systems using FPGA and system-on-a-chip technology; real-time computing and operating systems; real-time sensor networks; engineering design standards; and verification and validation of complex designs. In the laboratory the students will use state-of-the-art system development tools to design, construct, test and verify a system-on-a-chip-based system to meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic system constraints.

EGRE 435. Microscale and Nanoscale Fabrication. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: EGRE 306 and EGRE 334, both with a minimum grade of C. This course presents the design tools and techniques for designing a fabrication process as well as a device design and layout for advanced microscale and nanoscale devices. A number of different types of device technologies are covered, incorporating electronic, micromechanical and microfluidic devices and sensors. In the laboratory section of the course, students work in design teams to develop a complete fabrication process and design layout for a microscale device to meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Computer simulations and computer-aided design tools are used in the final design. The laboratory section of this course accomplishes the design phase of the senior design capstone project, which is presented at the end of semester and fabricated in the subsequent course, EGRE 436.

EGRE 436. Advanced Microscale and Nanoscale Fabrication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 435 with a minimum grade of C. This course presents a detailed analysis of the physics and modeling of the fundamental processes used in semiconductor processing. Emphasis is placed on the non-ideal effects that cause realistic processes to deviate from first order models, including second order effects such as interactions on the atomic level and the influence of crystal defects. Processes covered in detail include oxidation, diffusion, ion implementation, thin film deposition and plasma etching techniques.

EGRE 444. Communication Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 336 with a minimum grade of C. Design and analysis of analog and digital communication systems, pulse modulation, information and digital transmission, digital modulation, information theory and coding will be treated. Emphasis is placed on the student gaining an appreciation for and an understanding of the role of optimization and trade-offs by considering bandwidth requirements, signal-to-noise ratio limitations, complexity and cost of analog and digital communication systems.

EGRE 454. Automatic Controls. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 335, EGMN 305 or EGMN 315 with a minimum grade of C. For computer engineering or electrical engineering majors, the prerequisite is EGRE 335 with a minimum grade of C. This course covers the design and analysis of linear feedback systems. Emphasis is placed upon the student gaining mathematical modeling experience and performing sensitivity and stability analysis. The use of compensators to meet systems design specifications will be treated. Topics include: an overview and brief history of feedback control, dynamic models, dynamic response, basic properties of feedback, root-locus, frequency response and state space design methods. The laboratory will consist of modeling and control demonstrations and experiments of single-input/single-output and multivariable systems, analysis and simulation using MATLAB/Simulink and other control system analysis/design/implementation software.

EGRE 455. Control Systems Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 454 with a minimum grade of C. This course covers the use of state space methods to model analog and digital linear and nonlinear systems. Emphasis is placed on the student gaining mathematical modeling experience, performing sensitivity and stability analysis and designing compensators to meet systems specifications. Topics treated will include a review of root locus and frequency design methods, linear algebraic equations, state variable equations, state space design and digital control systems (principles and case studies). The students will use complex dynamic systems for analysis and design.

EGRE 471. Power System Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 309 with a minimum grade of C. Provides a comprehensive overview of electrical power system operation and design. Students develop models and tools for investigating system behavior and have opportunities for using those tools in design processes. At the completion of the course students will be able to develop appropriate models for an interconnected power system, perform power flow analysis, economic dispatch, power system protection and controls. Students will also be able to write a basic power flow computer program.

EGRE 491. Special Topics. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a total of 21 credits. Advanced study of a selected topic in electrical or computer engineering. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

EGRE 492. Independent Study in Electrical and Computer Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different content for a total of 9 credits. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Students must submit a written proposal to be approved by the supervising instructor prior to registration. Investigation of specialized electrical or computer engineering problems through literature search, mathematical analysis, computer simulation and/or laboratory experimentation. Written and oral progress reports as well as a final report and presentation are required.

Engineering (ENGR)

ENGR 100. Engineering Student Success. 0 Hours.

Semester course; seminar hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to new first-year students in the School of Engineering; required for students admitted conditionally. Students will meet for a 90-minute class once per week for five weeks. The course is dedicated to helping students understand the expectations and responsibilities of being a college student. Presentations will center on planning the semester, academic professionalism, study skills and test-taking strategies, financial literacy, health and wellness, time management, and the Honor Code. Seminars will be supplemented throughout the semester with online assignments to reinforce the discussions. Graded as pass/fail.

ENGR 101. Introduction to Engineering. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: admission to the School of Engineering or permission of instructor. Introduces basic circuits including resistors, diodes, transistors, digital gates and motors. Simple electromechanical systems are considered including motors, gears and wheels. The laboratory introduces fundamental circuit testing and measurement, and proper laboratory notebook writing; students are required to analyze, build and test a digitally controlled robot.

ENGR 111. Innovation Shop Training I. 0.5 Hours.

Semester course; 1 laboratory hour. 0.5 credits. Enrollment restricted to students in the School of Engineering. The course provides training on innovation shop safety, includes a tour of the shop, measuring and layout tools and techniques, use of general manual and powered hand tools. Students will be instructed on the use of a bench-top drill press, deburring and finishing tools, 3D printing, laser engraving and thermoforming equipment. Students need to achieve a minimum score of 76% in the class to attain Level I (Blue) certification. Only certified students have permission to use tools and equipment covered in this training. Graded as Pass/Fail.

ENGR 121. Engineering Fundamentals. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Open only to non-engineering majors in Certificate in Product Innovation program. Introduces engineering fundamentals to students from non-engineering disciplines. Particular focus is the engineering problem-solving process as applied to open-ended problems. Students will be introduced to the different types of engineering, examine engineering issues and apply the engineering problem-solving process.

ENGR 211. Innovation Shop Training II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: ENGR 111. Enrollment restricted to students in the School of Engineering. The course provides training on machine/innovation shop safety, blueprint reading, measuring and layout tools and techniques, and use of general and powered hand tools. Students will be instructed on sawing, sanding, drilling and tapping operations, 3D printing and laser engraving/cutting equipment. Hands-on graded assignment is the part of the course.

ENGR 291. Special Topics in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: to be determined by the instructor. Specialized topics in engineering designed to provide a topic not covered by an existing course or program. General engineering or multidisciplinary. May be repeated with different content. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENGR 296. Part-time Internship Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credit. Students may attempt this course a total of six times. Enrollment restricted to School of Engineering majors. The student works part time in an approved internship and must work a minimum of 90 hours, but less than 300 hours during the semester. The student works to meet learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor and student both complete evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR 303. Junior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. This course provides students an opportunity to explore business and leadership topics. Topics include the fundamentals of product design and new product development, manufacturing and quality systems, finances and financial reports, ethics in the workplace, intellectual property, teamwork, leadership and communications. Students will be assigned selected readings, written compositions and oral presentations. This course prepares the student to participate in the Engineering Laboratory/Manufacturing Internship.

ENGR 311. Innovation Shop Training III. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: ENGR 211. Enrollment is restricted to students with Level II (Red) certification. The Level III (Green) course provides basic training on set-up and operation of manual milling machines and the lathe. The course covers cutting tool, speed and feed calculation. Students must develop a technological process and machine metal parts per assigned drawings on vertical mill and lathe. They will also use other techniques and equipment that were covered in previous levels. Students need to achieve a minimum score of 76 % in the class to attain Level III (Green) certification. Only certified students have permission to use tools and equipment covered in this training.

ENGR 395. Professional Development. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 workshop hour. 1 credit. Enrollment is restricted to majors in the School of Engineering. Professional development course to help prepare students to find a job and succeed in a professional environment, and specifically to work as an intern or in a cooperative education position. Topics covered include career paths; job searches; resume and cover letter writing; preparing for the interview; personal assessment of interests, values and strengths; networking; professional and ethical behavior on the job; overview of legal issues related to hiring, such as nondisclosure agreements and noncompete clauses; overview of personal finance management at the first job; workplace safety; and expectations and requirements for internships and cooperative education positions.

ENGR 396. Internship Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credit. Students may attempt this course a total of three times. Enrollment restricted to School of Engineering majors. The student works in an approved internship and must work a minimum of 300 hours during the semester. The student works to meet learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor and student both complete evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR 398. Cooperative Education Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Students may attempt this course a total of four times. Prerequisite: ENGR 395. Restricted to School of Engineering majors in good academic standing. The student works full-time in an approved cooperative education position. The student works to meet specific learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor/mentor and student both complete midterm and final evaluations of the learning experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR 399. Cooperative Education Experience II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR 398. Restricted to School of Engineering majors in good academic standing. A student that has completed at least one work term in a full-time approved cooperative education position completes an additional full-time work term. The student works to meet specific learning objectives while gaining practical experience relevant to their major. The student completes assignments to document, assess and reflect on their learning experience. The supervisor/mentor and student both complete midterm and final evaluations of the learning experience.

ENGR 402. Senior Design Studio (Seminar). 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 1 lecture hour. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: senior standing and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; completion of ENGR 402 to enroll in ENGR 403. This weekly seminar presents and discusses topics relevant to senior-level engineering students in support of the capstone project and upcoming graduation. A single course coordinator manages and administers the course and schedules the various faculty lectures and guest speakers. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following: proposal writing, project planning and management, scheduling resources and budgeting for technical projects, patents and intellectual property, quality systems (six sigma, ISO standards, statistical process control), entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation and professional registration.

ENGR 403. Senior Design Studio (Seminar). 1 Hour.

Continuous courses; 1 lecture hour. 1-1 credit. Prerequisites: senior standing and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; completion of ENGR 402 to enroll in ENGR 403. This weekly seminar presents and discusses topics relevant to senior-level engineering students in support of the capstone project and upcoming graduation. A single course coordinator manages and administers the course and schedules the various faculty lectures and guest speakers. Topics include, but are not limited to, the following: proposal writing, project planning and management, scheduling resources and budgeting for technical projects, patents and intellectual property, quality systems (six sigma, ISO standards, statistical process control), entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation and professional registration.

ENGR 410. Review of Internship. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisites: chemical, electrical and computer, or mechanical engineering major and experience to satisfy the engineering internship requirements. Students complete oral presentations and written reports summarizing the internship experience.

ENGR 411. Fundamentals of Engineering Exam Preparation. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: senior or graduate standing, or permission of instructor. This course prepares students for taking the fundamentals of Engineering Exam. Passing the FE Exam is the first step to getting a Professional Engineering license. This course is not intended to teach the various subject matters, but to review the subject areas and help students prepare as well as possible for the examination.

ENGR 490. Engineering Seminar. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. May be repeated with different content. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. A series of specialized topics in engineering that are of general interest but not covered by an existing course or program. Lectures will be presented in seminar format by speakers from business, industry, government and academia. Subjects will be multidisciplinary in nature. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

ENGR 491. Special Topics in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: determined by the instructor. Specialized topics in engineering designed to provide a topic not covered by an existing course or program. General engineering or multidisciplinary. May be repeated with different content. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

ENGR 492. Independent Study in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different content. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor. Students must submit a written proposal to be approved by the supervising instructor prior to registration. Investigation of specialized engineering problems that are multidisciplinary or of general interest through literature search, mathematical analysis, computer simulation and/or laboratory experimentation. Written and oral progress reports as well as a final report and presentation are required. Graded as pass/fail or normal letter grading at the option of the instructor.

ENGR 496. Internship Review. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR 296 or ENGR 396. Restricted to School of Engineering majors. This course is to be taken following the completion of a minimum of 300 hours of approved internship experience relevant to the student’s major and documents that a student has fulfilled all internship requirements, including a final evaluation by the employer, a final self-evaluation, a final report describing the experience and a final oral presentation about the experience. Graded pass/fail.

ENGR 497. Vertically Integrated Projects. 1,2 Hour.

Semester course; 3 or 6 laboratory hours. 1 or 2 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits Prerequisites: permission of the project faculty adviser. This course provides undergraduate students the opportunity to participate in multiyear, multidisciplinary projects under the guidance of faculty and graduate students in their areas of expertise. As they address research and development issues, students learn and practice many different professional skills, make substantial technical contributions to the project, and experience many different roles on a large, multidisciplinary design/discovery team. Students must earn a minimum of 4 credits in ENGR 497 with a minimum grade of C in order for these credits to be eligible to count toward a technical or departmental elective. More restrictive requirements may be imposed by individual departments.

ENGR 498. Review of Cooperative Education Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 credits. Prerequisite: ENGR 398. Restricted to School of Engineering majors. This course is completed following the final work term of a cooperative education experience and is required to obtain transcript notation to document that a student has fulfilled all the requirements of the school’s cooperative education program. The requirements include a final evaluation by the employer, a final self-evaluation, a final report describing the experience and a final oral presentation about the experience.

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering (EGMN)

EGMN 102. Engineering Statics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: MATH 200 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Corequisite: PHYS 207 or permission of instructor. The theory and application of engineering mechanics applied to the design and analysis of rigid structures. Equilibrium of two- and three-dimensional bodies. The study of forces and their effects. Applications to engineering systems.

EGMN 103. Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Practicum I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Students will perform a sequence of laboratory modules designed to provide practical hands-on exposure to important topics, equipment and experimental methods in mechanical and nuclear engineering. Topics covered include communication, optimization, reverse engineering, mechanics, thermodynamics and electric circuits.

EGMN 190. Introduction to Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. The course will introduce students to the engineering profession, present basic mechanical and nuclear engineering concepts and include seminars presented by alumni, industry and experts in their fields.

EGMN 201. Dynamics and Kinematics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 207, EGMN 102 and MATH 201, with a minimum grade of C in each, or permission of the instructor. Kinematics and kinetics of particles. Kinematics of rigid bodies; translation and fixed-axis rotation relative to translating axes, general planar motion, fixed-point rotation and general motion. Kinetics of rigid bodies: center of mass, mass moment of inertia, product of inertia, principal-axes, parallelaxes theorems. Planar motion, work-energy method. Design of cams, gears and linkages.

EGMN 202. Mechanics of Deformables. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 102 and MATH 201, with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of the instructor. An introductory course covering the mechanics of deformable solids. Subjects include stress, strain and constitutive relations; bending of beams; torsion; shearing; deflection of beams; column buckling; fatigue; failure theory; analysis and design of bar-type members.

EGMN 203. Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Practicum II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Students will perform a sequence of laboratory modules designed to provide practical hands-on exposure to important topics, equipment and experimental methods in mechanical and nuclear engineering. Topics covered include additive manufacturing, radiation detection and measurement, radiation shielding, data acquisition and computer interfacing, coding for instrumentation control.

EGMN 204. Thermodynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 207 and MATH 201 with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of the instructor. Fundamental concepts of thermodynamics; first and second law of thermodynamics; entropy and equilibrium; equations of state; properties of pure fluids; molecular interpretation of thermodynamic properties; phase equilibria; work and heat; power cycles; chemical reactions.

EGMN 215. Engineering Visualization and Computation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to mechanical engineering majors or with permission of the instructor. Programming in Excel and MATLAB will be introduced. The creation and interpretation of graphical communication for engineering students. Two- and three-dimensional part and assembly representations. Dimensioning and tolerancing as a link between design and manufacturing. An introduction to solid modeling and virtual prototyping. The course will impart proficiency in computer and graphical applications of fundamental and practical importance to engineering students.

EGMN 300. Mechanical Systems Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 201 and EGMN 202, with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of the instructor. Basic principles of applied mechanics and materials employed for the design of machine elements and mechanical systems; state of stress, deformation and failure criterion is applied to bearings, brakes, clutches, belt drives, gears, chains, springs, gear trains, power screws and transmissions.

EGMN 301. Fluid Mechanics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 207 and EGMN 204, with a minimum grade of C in each, or permission of instructor. Corequisite: MATH 301 or permission of instructor. Basic and applied fluid mechanics; fluid properties; application of Bernoulli and Navier-Stokes equations; macroscopic mass, momentum and energy balances; dimensional analysis; laminar and turbulent flow; boundary layer theory; friction factors in pipes and packed beds; drag coefficients; compressible flow; flow measurements; numerical simulation; applications to the operation and design of turbo machinery.

EGMN 302. Heat Transfer. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 204 and EGMN 301, MATH 301 and MATH 307, with a minimum grade of C in each, or permission of instructor. This course includes an overview of the basic modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection and radiation. It provides an in-depth discussion of transient and steady-state heat conduction in one-, two- and three-dimensional space, and both analytical and numerical approaches are discussed. Additional concepts include free and forced convection in external and internal flow configurations.

EGMN 303. Thermal Systems Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, EGMN 204 and EGMN 301, with a minimum grade of C in each, or permission of the instructor. Fundamentals of heat transfer, thermodynamics and fluid mechanics applied to the analysis, design, selection and application of energy conversion systems.

EGMN 305. Sensors/Measurements. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301 with a minimum grade of C, PHYS 208 and STAT 541; or permission of instructor. Introduction to sensors and their utilization for measurement and control; sensor types: electromechanical, electro-optical, electro-chemical; applications in medicine, chemical manufacturing, mechanical control and optical inspection.

EGMN 309. Material Science for Engineers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 101 or permission of instructor. The study of materials from a microscopic or atomic level. Consideration of mechanical, electrical, thermal, magnetic and optical properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. Thermal processing for modification of properties, dislocation and phase transformation. Material selection for design with consideration of economic, environmental and societal issues.

EGMN 311. Solid Mechanics Lab. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 0.5 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 201, EGMN 202 and UNIV 200, all with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Experiments will be conducted on fundamental principles of solid mechanics, materials and dynamics. Topics covered include testing of materials for tensile, compression, bending and torsional loads, vibrations and material microstructure.

EGMN 312. Thermal Sciences Lab. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 0.5 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 301 and UNIV 200, each with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Experiments will be conducted on fundamental principles of fluid mechanics, thermodynamics and heat transfer. Topics covered include hydrostatics, Bernoulli equation, impact jets, aerodynamic force, heat pump thermodynamics cycles, heat exchangers and convection heat transfer.

EGMN 315. Process and Systems Dynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, EGRE 206, EGMN 201 and PHYS 207, all with a minimum grade of C; or permission of instructor. Undergraduate course covering the analysis of chemical, fluid, mechanical and electrical dynamic systems. Pedagogically, a single approach is taught that applies to any of the systems in any of these disciplines using conservation equations and constitutive relationships to build the systems of differential equations needed for the analysis. The mathematical structures of the types of differential equations typically generated in dynamic physical systems are reviewed and both analytical and numerical solution techniques are taught. Finally, the tools used to develop control components for systems in these areas are covered along with the mathematical tools (e.g., Laplace transforms) needed for their analysis.

EGMN 321. Numerical Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301 and EGMN 215, with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of instructor. A study of numerical algorithms used in error analysis, computing roots of equations, solving linear algebraic equations, curve fitting, numerical differentiation and integration, numerical methods for ordinary differential equations and a brief introduction to numerical methods for partial differential equations. The course content is tailored for mechanical engineering applications.

EGMN 351. Nuclear Engineering Fundamentals. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Restricted to mechanical engineering majors. Prerequisite: MATH 200 with a minimum grade of C or permission of the instructor. An introductory course to familiarize students with the concepts, systems and application of nuclear energy. Topics include radioactivity, fission, fusion, reactor concepts, biological effects of radiation, nuclear propulsion and radioactive waste disposal. Designed to provide students with a broad perspective of nuclear engineering.

EGMN 352. Nuclear Reactor Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301; and EGMN 359 or EGMN 455 with a minimum grade of C; or permission of instructor. This course introduces the fundamental properties of the neutron, the reactions induced by neutrons, nuclear fission, the slowing down of neutrons in infinite and finite media, diffusion theory, the 1-group or 2-group approximation, point kinetics, and fission-product poisoning. Provides students with the nuclear reactor theory foundation necessary for reactor design and reactor engineering problems.

EGMN 355. Radiation Safety and Shielding. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGMN 351 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of instructor. Fundamentals of radiation safety and shielding with focus on sources of radioactivity, interaction of radiation with matter, biological effects of radiation, dosimetry, attenuation of gamma rays and neutrons and effectiveness of shielding methods.

EGMN 356. Nuclear Instrumentation and Measurements. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGMN 355 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Provides an in-depth study of radiation detection systems. Students will understand both the practical operation of detection systems as well as the physical processes involved in radiation detection, attenuation and shielding.

EGMN 359. Nuclear Power Plants. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGMN 351 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: EGMN 204 or permission of instructor. Design and analysis of nuclear power plants -- both existing and planned. Topics include survey of reactor types and common design characteristics; the conversion of thermal energy to electricity; the control and operation of nuclear reactors through an analysis of the coupling of the reactors and the power plant; reactor transient analysis; and nuclear safety design.

EGMN 401. Mechanical Engineering Leadership. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 9 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to students with junior or senior standing in mechanical engineering and permission of the instructor. Senior/junior students will serve as lab teaching assistants in EGMN 103, EGMN 203, EGMN 215, EGMN 311 or EGMN 312. Leadership skills will be honed as the senior/junior students guide, lead and supervise other students as they complete hands-on learning modules and/or design, conduct, analyze and report on experiments in one of these lab courses.

EGMN 402. Senior Design Studio (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: five courses from EGMN 300, 301, 302, 303, 315, 321, 355, 416, 420, 421 and 455; and two courses from EGMN 300, 303 and 420. All prerequisite courses must be completed with minimum grades of C. Enrollment restricted to students with senior standing participating in a senior design (capstone) project. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGMN 403. Senior Design Studio (Laboratory/Project Time). 2 Hours.

Continuous course; 6 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing and participation in a senior design (capstone) project; EGMN 402. A minimum of six laboratory hours per week dedicated to continuing the execution phase of the senior design (capstone) project, which should meet appropriate engineering standards and multiple realistic constraints. Tasks include team meetings, brainstorming, sponsor advising, designing, fabrications, assembling, reviewing, studying, researching, testing and validating projects.

EGMN 416. Mechatronics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGRE 206 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of instructor. Lecture materials and laboratory experiments focus on the fundamentals of design-oriented mechanical, electrical and computer systems integration. Specifically, students learn analog and digital electronic design, data acquisition, transducers, actuator technologies and control, design with microprocessors and embedded electronics, and application of control theory.

EGMN 418. HVAC: Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 301, EGMN 302 and EGMN 303. Introduction to the fundamentals of HVAC systems, including basic terminology, psychometrics, HVAC system components, types of HVAC systems for various building requirements, physiological considerations and environmental indices, control of thermal comfort and indoor air quality, heat gain or loss in spaces to be conditioned, basic heating and cooling load calculations.

EGMN 420. CAE Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 201 and EGMN 215, with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of instructor. Review of geometric modeling, engineering visualization tools applicable to engineering design. Develop visual thinking and communication skills with assistance of computer modeling tools. Emphasis placed on creative design, application of physical laws, and hands-on virtual or physical projects. Topics include review of kinematics/dynamics of commonly used planar mechanisms and programming techniques for motion simulation. Interdisciplinary projects will be assigned to assess students' design knowledge.

EGMN 421. CAE Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 202 and EGMN 215; and MATH 301 and MATH 307, all with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Application of computer-aided techniques to the analysis of engineering problems utilizing linear algebra, computer calculations of matrices and numerical solution of governing differential equilibrium equations common to all fields of engineering. Students will be exposed to formulations of finite element methods of analysis. Emphasis is placed on practical aspects of structural FE modeling. Analysis programs such as ANSYS, MSC/PATRAN, MSC/NASTRAN and/or MATLAB are utilized.

EGMN 422. Design and Additive Manufacturing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 420 or permission of the instructor. Design and additive manufacturing is the use of layer-based processes for producing parts directly from computer-aided design models without part-specific tooling. In this course students will learn about various AM technologies focusing upon their potential to support rapid prototyping and manufacturing processes coupled with the important research challenges associated with AM. This course will expand students’ knowledge in design and applied engineering as they model, fabricate, test, discuss and iterate upon mechanical 3D objects they design throughout the semester.

EGMN 425. Introduction to Manufacturing Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in the School of Engineering or permission of the instructor. Basic principles of systems analysis and modeling applied to manufacturing processes and operations; numerical control, programmable controllers, flexible manufacturing systems, group technology, process planning and control, modeling and simulation of factory operations.

EGMN 426. Manufacturing Processes. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in the School of Engineering or permission of the instructor. Introduction to the operation and design of metal fabrication processes; analysis of metal casting, extrusion, rolling, forging, wire and rod drawing; review of metal removal and joining methods; economic and business considerations.

EGMN 427. Robotics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in the School of Engineering or permission of the instructor. Introduction to the state-of-the-art and technology of robotics and its applications for productivity gain in industry.

EGMN 428. Polymer Processing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ENGR 301 and 302, with a minimum grade of C in both, or permission of the instructor. Basic principles of momentum and heat transfer applied to the analysis of polymer processing operations; introduction to polymer rheology; operation and design aspects of extruders, blown film, injection molding, thermoforming and compression molding machinery.

EGMN 435. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in the School of Engineering or permission of the instructor. Methodologies used in the synthesis and analysis of product design in order to optimize manufacturing and assembly; relationship of design to the production processes, materials handling, assembly, finishing, quality and costs with emphasis on both formed and assembled products.

EGMN 436. Engineering Materials. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in the School of Engineering or permission of the instructor. Materials properties and their modification as related to engineering properties and design; elastic and plastic stress-strain behavior of materials along with diffusion in solids, phase equilibria, and phase transformations; materials selection considerations include design, fabrication, mechanical failure, corrosion, service stability as well as compatibility and function in the human body.

EGMN 437. Principles of Polymer Engineering. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 202 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Basic principles of mechanics applied to the mechanical design and fabrication of polymers; introduction to polymer structure, rubber elasticity, and viscoelasticity; mechanical properties, plastic part design and plastic materials selection; fabrication processes.

EGMN 450. Nuclear Reactor Control and Dynamics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 301, EGMN 201 and EGMN 455, with a minimum grade of C in each, or permission of instructor. An introduction to control theory and its applications for nuclear engineering students. Modeling and development of differential equations for nuclear systems. Analysis of nuclear reactor dynamics in the time and frequency domains. Application of feedback control techniques to reactor operation, stability and performance.

EGMN 451. Nuclear Safety and Security. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGMN 455 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. A study of technological risks and security issues related to nuclear power. Analysis of nuclear reactor system components and operational features that are relevant to safety; reactor containment; safety analysis of nuclear power plants using deterministic and probabilistic models; methods for human, environmental and ecological risk assessment; NRC regulations and procedures; safeguarding against natural (earthquake, tornadoes) and human (domestic and international) threats; classification and consequences of accidents including historical case studies.

EGMN 453. Economics of Nuclear Power Production. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: EGMN 352 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Fundamentals of engineering economic analysis are applied to energy supply, demand, prices and production with specific emphasis on nuclear energy, the capital cost of nuclear power plants, the nuclear fuel cycle and associated energy technologies.

EGMN 455. Nuclear Power Plants. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 204 and EGMN 352, each with a minimum grade of C, or permission of instructor. Design and analysis of nuclear power plants. Review of thermodynamic cycles and reactor types; analysis of the coupling of the reactor and the power plant; thermal and mechanical design of steam turbines; turbogenerators; auxiliary systems; design synthesis and heat balance calculations; operation of nuclear reactors.

EGMN 456. Reactor Design and Systems. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: EGMN 302, EGMN 303 and EGMN 352; and EGMN 359 or EGMN 455, all with a minimum grade of C; or permission of instructor. Engineering principles of nuclear reactors, emphasizing power reactors. Specific topics include power plant thermodynamics, reactor heat generation and removal (single-phase as well as two-phase coolant flow and heat transfer), and structural mechanics. The course also covers engineering considerations in reactor design.

EGMN 491. Special Topics in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different content. Prerequisite: determined by the instructor. Specialized topics in engineering designed to provide a topic not covered by an existing course or program. General engineering or multidisciplinary. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

EGMN 492. Independent Study in Engineering. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-5 credits. May be repeated with different content. Enrollment requires permission of the instructor. Students must submit a written proposal to be approved by the supervising instructor prior to registration. Investigation of specialized engineering problems that are multidisciplinary or of general interest through literature search, mathematical analysis, computer simulation and/or laboratory experimentation. Written and oral progress reports as well as a final report and presentation are required.

College of Health Professions

Allied Health Professions (ALHP)

ALHP 310. Introduction to Health Care Professions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an introduction to health professions and careers with an emphasis on allied health. Introduces concepts of professionalism and interprofessional collaboration in the health care services environment; basic knowledge of issues and trends in health promotion and delivery; and cultural and economic factors impacting health equity and access.

ALHP 320. Person-centered Care. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an introduction to person-centered care and examines the relationships between patients, their families and health care providers. Emphasizes the role that these relationships and interactions play in the current health care services system and how they lead to better quality of care, increased satisfaction with health care providers and improved health outcomes.

ALHP 325. Introduction to Rehabilitation Services. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of rehabilitative services. Familiarizes students in the areas of chronic illness and disability in interdisciplinary rehabilitation professions and settings. Introduces public policy and legislation pertinent to rehabilitation services.

ALHP 330. Human Growth and Development for the Health Professions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the major theories and research of human development across the lifespan. Focuses on physical, emotional, social and cognitive aspects. Emphasizes how developmental processes relate to persons, including those who experience illness and disability.

ALHP 340. Health Care Technology and Innovation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Emphasizes the “hows and whys” of recent advances and disrupters in health care information systems. Students will design a life-saving (or money-making) app.

ALHP 391. Special Topics. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Offered for undergraduate level. Interdisciplinary study through lectures, tutorial study or independent research of selected topics not provided in other courses.

ALHP 410. Professional and Clinical Ethics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Emphasizes the ethical responsibility of health care providers and health services professionals. Reviews the code of ethics for professional and personal integrity. Applies the principles of ethics toward informed decision-making.

ALHP 415. Health Care Financing and Budgeting. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines payment for health care services. Shows how the results of financial operations are recorded and evaluated. Develops basic skills for financial management of health care organizations.

ALHP 416. Health Care Economics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ECON 210. Provides an introduction to microeconomic concepts and theories as tools for understanding health and health care issues. Explores the fundamentals of health and health services as markets and how these may differ from markets for other goods and services. Describes market failure and the role of government. Examines economics as a way of approaching issues of public policy in the organization and financing of health care services.

ALHP 420. Health Care Leadership Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Focuses on the development of leadership skills within a health care services setting. Introduces students to positive organizational scholarship and its impact on organizational performance/outcomes and employee engagement. Provides students with an opportunity to identify and develop their leadership characteristics.

ALHP 425. Health Care Management and Performance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the role of managers in health care organizations and effective management of organizational performance, including quality.

ALHP 430. Overview of Research in the Health Professions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 and STAT 210. Emphasizes the preparation of professionals as consumers of research who will find, understand, interpret and apply research findings in their professional practice. Stresses the capacity to critically analyze and utilize research findings and evaluate the outcomes of programs, interventions and services.

ALHP 435. Health Care Career Development and Planning in Allied Health Professions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 field experience hours (60 service hours). 3 credits. Prerequisite: ALHP 310. Emphasizes the preparation of students for job search or future professional and educational opportunities. Provides an opportunity for service learning and relevant experiential, applied learning in a health services field.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLLS)

CLLS 201. Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Science. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Open to students on the Monroe Park Campus who are interested in clinical laboratory science/medical technology as a career. Presentation and discussion of clinical laboratory science including an introduction to each of the specific areas of concentration, job opportunities in the profession and a tour of a hospital laboratory. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 300. Basic Concepts. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 1.5 credits. An introduction to the basic concepts/techniques applicable to all laboratory science areas. Includes optical physics, quality control, laboratory safety, medical terminology and pipetting techniques along with other basic subjects.

CLLS 301. Hematology. 1.5-3.5 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 1-5-3.5 credits. May be repeated for 3.5 credits. Enrollment restricted to CLS majors. Provides a study of the blood and blood-forming tissues. Focuses on basic hematologic techniques and accurate identification of normal and abnormal hematologic cells. Introduces the hemostatic mechanism. Correlates the roles of normal hematologic cells with normal hematologic homeostasis. This course qualifies for the option of proficiency credits for certified medical laboratory technicians.

CLLS 302. Abnormal Hematology. 1.5-4 Hours.

Semester course; 2.5 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 1.5-4 credits. May be repeated for a total of 4 credits. Prerequisite: CLLS 301. Enrollment restricted to CLS majors. Provides a study of the blood and blood-forming tissues. Focuses on basic hematologic techniques and normal and abnormal cell identification accuracy. Correlates the roles of abnormal cells with pathological conditions. Focuses on abnormal hemostasis. This course qualifies for the option of proficiency credits for certified medical laboratory technicians.

CLLS 304. Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture and 1 laboratory hours. 1-2 credits. A study of the principles and practices of urinalysis, kidney function, cerebrospinal fluid and other body fluids.

CLLS 306. Immunohematology. 2.5-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 2.5 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 2.5-4.5 credits. Prerequisite: CLLS 310. A study of the theory and principles of blood banking with an emphasis on methods and techniques used in the laboratory for cell typing, cross-matching and antibody identification.

CLLS 307. Introduction to Pathogenic Microbiology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. May be taken as 1 credit each for study of basic parasitology, mycology or virology. Includes fundamentals of parasites, fungi and viruses as potentially pathogenic microorganisms.

CLLS 308. Pathogenic Bacteriology. 3-5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 4 laboratory hours. 3-5 credits. Emphasis is placed on pathogenic bacteria, techniques, pathogenesis, epidemiology, isolation and identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

CLLS 310. Clinical Immunology. 3-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 3.5 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3-4.5 credits. Introduces the basic principles of immunology, serology and molecular diagnostics. Emphasis is placed on laboratory evaluation of the immune response including both cellular and humoral aspects. Serologic techniques are practiced in the laboratory sessions.

CLLS 311. Clinical Chemistry and Instrumentation I. 3-5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 3-5 credits. A study of human physiology and metabolism in health and various disease states. Topics include energy and nitrogen metabolism and proteins in body fluids. Emphasis is placed on the application of quantitative analytical methods and instrumentation for the chemical characterization of body fluids to provide clinically useful information for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

CLLS 312. Clinical Chemistry and Instrumentation II. 4-5 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4-5 credits. Prerequisite: CLLS 311 or permission of the instructor. A study of human physiology and metabolism in health and various disease states. Topics include water and ion balance, clinical enzymology, therapeutic drug monitoring, and toxicology. Emphasis is placed on the application of quantitative analytical methods and instrumentation for the chemical characterization of body fluids to provide clinically useful information for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.

CLLS 337. Clinical Education. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 120 clock hours. 1 credit. Supervised clinical experience in hospitals across the state is designed to give the student a broader clinical education and to provide venipuncture experience. In addition to the application of academically acquired knowledge, this affiliation provides an opportunity for the student to correlate each area of study into one composite picture for final laboratory diagnosis. Closer working relationships with other allied health personnel is an important aspect of this affiliation. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 407. Interpretive Immunohematology. 2-2.5 Hours.

Semester course; 2.5 lecture hours. 2-2.5 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 306 and 310, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of the principles of immunohematology and immunology with major emphasis on blood group systems and blood components. Includes the application of laboratory data and techniques to solve problems in blood banking and immunology.

CLLS 408. Advanced Microbiology. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 307 and 308, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of the principles of pathogenic microbiology. Includes the application of laboratory data and techniques to solve problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

CLLS 409. Interpretive Hematology. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 301-302 and 485, or permission of instructor. Advanced study of the principles of hematopoiesis and their pathophysiological correlation to hematological disorders. Interpretation of morphological findings are correlated with case histories. Includes homeostatic problems.

CLLS 410. Advanced Clinical Chemistry and Instrumentation. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 311-312, or permission of instructor. Presents an advanced study of (1) the principles of clinical chemistry as related to intermediary metabolism and pathology and (2) laboratory and hospital information systems. Includes the application of laboratory data and technologies to solve problems in analytical methods and instruments.

CLLS 411. Principles of Education/Management. 2.5-3.5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 2.5-3.5 credits. Introduces fundamental educational theories and practice, principles of management and employee relations and health-care issues from a global perspective with an emphasis on multicultural diversity. Stresses the application of these theories in the clinical laboratory.

CLLS 412. Senior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Seminars are presented on various aspects of professionalism, experimental design and critical evaluation of scientific literature. A simulated registry exam is given at the conclusion. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 415. Special Topics in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; 1-6 credits. Course provides for tutorial studies, laboratory experience and/or library assignments in specialized areas for those students who have previous course work or laboratory experience in a specific subject.

CLLS 438. Research Paper. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. This course is designed to introduce the student to the fundamentals of scientific writing.

CLLS 483. Biochemistry Practicum. 1-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 40-180 clock hours. 1-4.5 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 311-312. Individual participation in hospital chemistry laboratories. Students gain practical experience in the use of procedures and instruments by working with the staff. After gaining competence, students are expected to perform and sign out routine laboratory work under supervision. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 485. Hematology Practicum. 1-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 40-180 clock hours. 1-4.5 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 301-302. Individual participation in hospital hematology laboratories. Students gain practical experience in the use of procedures and instruments by working with the staff. After gaining competence, the students are expected to perform and sign out routine laboratory work under supervision. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 493. Clinical Microbiology Practicum. 1-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 40-180 clock hours. 1-4.5 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 307-308. Individual participation in hospital bacteriology laboratories. Students gain practical experience in the performance and use of procedures by working with the clinical staff. After gaining competence, the students are expected to properly perform and sign out routine laboratory work under supervision. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 494. Miscellaneous Clinical Practicum. 1-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 40-180 clock hours. 1-4.5 credits. Prerequisites: CLLS 301-302, 308, 310, 311-312 or permission of instructor. Students gain practical experience in the use of instruments and the performance of procedures by working with the clinical staff. After gaining competence, students are expected to properly perform and sign out routine laboratory work under supervision. Graded as pass/fail.

CLLS 496. Blood Bank Practicum. 1-4.5 Hours.

Semester course; 40-180 clock hours. 1-4.5 credits. Prerequisite: CLLS 306. Individual participation in hospital blood bank laboratories and Virginia Blood Services. Students gain practical experience in the use of procedures and instruments by working with the staff. Donor drawing and component preparation is observed. After gaining competence, the students are expected to properly perform and sign out routine laboratory work under supervision. Graded as pass/fail.

Clinical Radiation Sciences (CLRS)

CLRS 101. Introduction to Clinical Radiologic Sciences. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Presentation and discussion of the art and science of medical imaging and therapeutics. Radiography, nuclear medicine, radiation therapy, sonography and other radiologic technologies will be discussed in terms of career specialties within the profession.

CLRS 201. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 205. Corequisites: CLRS 232 and CLRZ 201. Introduction to radiographic equipment and the imaging process. Covers topics including equipment operation and manipulating radiation exposure to produce quality radiographs. Presents information that prepares students for clinical practice. Emphasizes clinical problem-solving as it relates to patient variables, pathology and technical exposure factors.

CLRS 203. Pathophysiology I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Presentation of the principles of disease and an introduction to various conditions of illness involving body systems.

CLRS 204. Pathophysiology I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 205, PHIS 206 and PHIZ 206. Completion of CLRS 203 to enroll in CLRS 204. Presentation of the principles of disease and an introduction to various conditions of illness involving body systems.

CLRS 205. Exploring Radiologic Sciences. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. A general overview of the wide variety of imaging and treatment modalities in radiologic sciences will be presented. Emphasis will be on understanding how these modalities are utilized in today's complex health care environment, as well as the role of the technologist/therapist.

CLRS 206. Cross-sectional Anatomy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. A general overview of cross-sectional anatomy at representative levels will be presented. Emphasis will be on identifying major muscles, organs, bones and vessels on diagrams, photographs and images.

CLRS 208. Foundations of Patient Care. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Legal, ethical and technical foundations of patient care will be explored with emphasis on the application of these principles to common radiologic situations.

CLRS 211. Radiographic Procedures I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 208 with a minimum grade of C. Combines the study of anatomy and physiology and positioning for diagnostic radiographic examinations of the upper extremity, thorax, abdomen, lower extremity, spine and pelvis. Requires demonstration of competence in radiographic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients, manipulation of radiographic equipment and evaluation of radiographs.

CLRS 212. Radiographic Procedures II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 211 with a minimum grade of C. Continuation of CLRS 211 with emphasis on anatomy and physiology and positioning for diagnostic radiographic examinations of routine contrast studies and basic headwork. Requires students to demonstrate competence in radiographic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients, manipulation of radiographic equipment and evaluation of radiographs.

CLRS 232. Radiation Safety. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Provides an overview of radiation protection as it applies to the radiation sciences. Emphasizes radiation sources, detection and regulations. Discusses radiation protection responsibilities of the radiologic technologist for patients, personnel and the public.

CLRS 294. Introduction to Clinical Education I. 0.5 Hours.

Semester course; 60 clinical hours. 0.5 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS 208 with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Introduces students to the clinical process and equipment, and provides practical experience in routine, basic procedures.

CLRS 295. Introduction to Clinical Education II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 120 clinical hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS 201, 211, 232 and 294 with a minimum grade of C in all. Continued introduction to clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Provides additional practical experience in routine, basic procedures.

CLRS 300. Introduction to Sonography. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. This course is restricted to students in the clinical radiation sciences program. Introduces sonography as a career to include ultrasound equipment operation, sonography safety, legal and ethical issues, ultrasound image orientation and interpretation, professional organizations, and employment opportunities.

CLRS 301. Sonography Physics and Instrumentation I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation sciences majors. Introduces ultrasound instrumentation, propagation principles and interactions to include, but not limited to, sound waves, interaction of sound with different mediums, transducer design, display modes, sound beams, resolution, ultrasound equipment function, 2-D and real-time imaging.

CLRS 302. Sonography Physics and Instrumentation II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 301. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Expands upon discussion of material introduced in prerequisite course along with implementing ultrasound instrumentation, propagation principles and interactions. Introduces new concepts such as sound waves, image processing, hemodynamics, Doppler, ultrasound artifacts and quality assurance.

CLRS 303. Orientation to Nuclear Medicine. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 clinical hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 208 and CLRS 232 both with a minimum grade of C. Designed to acquaint the student with the field of nuclear medicine in general and the Program in Nuclear Medicine Technology in particular. It also provides an introduction to clinical practice.

CLRS 305. Orientation to Radiation Therapy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 208 and CLRS 232, both with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to the clinical process, equipment and history of radiation therapy. Information will be presented that prepares the student to begin clinical practice. Clinical rotations and lab exercises are designed to expose the student to various aspects of radiation therapy.

CLRS 309. Oncologic Patient Care. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 208 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 305. Covers the basic concepts of patient care specific to radiation therapy, including consideration of physical and psychological conditions. Patient interactions, patient examinations, asepsis, local and systemic reactions, nutrition and medications are discussed. Factors influencing patient health during and following a course of radiation will be identified.

CLRS 311. Abdominal Sonography I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Investigates cross-sectional anatomy, pathology, image production/interpretation and sonography scanning techniques/protocols related to abdominal sonography.

CLRS 312. Radiographic Procedures III. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 212 with a minimum grade of C. Continuation of CLRS 211 and 212 to cover additional and alternative positions for routine radiographic examinations as well as special studies of circulatory, reproductive, urinary, skeletal and central nervous systems. Discusses equipment, procedures and strategies for performing pediatric, trauma, mobile and operating room radiographic exams. Includes small group simulation opportunities.

CLRS 313. Abdominal Sonography II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 311. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Investigates cross-sectional anatomy, pathology, image production/interpretation and sonography scanning techniques/protocols related to abdominal sonography, breast and small parts.

CLRS 314. Pathology and Treatment Principles I. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 309 and CLRS 323 with a minimum grade of C in both. Presents the fundamentals of the disease processes for cancer of the following: skin, thorax, genitourinary, gynecological, head and neck, central nervous system, and breast. Discusses malignant condition, etiology and epidemiology, patient workup, and methods of treatment. Attention to patient prognosis, treatment results and the effects of combined therapies. Requires demonstration of competence in selected radiotherapeutic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients and the manipulation of equipment.

CLRS 316. Introduction to Vascular Sonography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 302 or permission of the department chair. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation sciences majors or by permission of the department chair. Introduces basic anatomy, pathology and evaluation techniques of basic vascular anatomy, including venous, extracranial cerebrovascular and visceral vascular anatomy. Presents processes for performing venous, extracranial and visceral vascular protocols.

CLRS 317. Nuclear Medicine Procedures I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequistie: two semesters of general chemistry. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 303. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS 318. Nuclear Medicine Procedures II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 317 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS 319. Nuclear Medicine Procedures III. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 318 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of routine nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS 320. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 201 and CLRZ 201 both with a minimum grade of C. Emphasizes federal regulations and monitoring of the imaging system components that may affect radiographic quality through improper functioning. Provides in-depth exploration of digital imaging.

CLRS 321. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 303. Corequisite: CLRZ 321. Presents the physical principles of atomic structure, electromagnetic spectrum, units of measurement, radioactive decay and attenuation in matter. Operation of radiation equipment will include statistical applications and quality control procedures.

CLRS 322. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 317, CLRS 321 and CLRZ 321 with a minimum grade of C in all. Corequisite: CLRZ 322. Presents advanced applications in physics and the operating principles of nuclear medicine imaging devices and related quality control procedures.

CLRS 323. Radiation Therapy, Techniques and Applications. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 305. Presents the basic concepts of dosimetry and treatment planning. Various external beam techniques and applications, depth dose data and summation of isodose curves are discussed. Modalities of treatment, patient setup, dose measurement and verification also are included.

CLRS 325. Sonography Professional Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 311 and CLRS 329. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Integrates various didactic and clinical concepts as they relate to the professional practice of diagnostic medical sonography.

CLRS 329. Obstetric and Gynecologic Sonography I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Introduces female cross-sectional anatomy, pathology, image production and interpretation, and scanning techniques/protocols related to basic obstetric and gynecologic sonography.

CLRS 331. Radiographic Imaging Equipment. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 320 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the principles and operation of general and specialized X-ray equipment. Emphasizes the equipment necessary to perform radiographic, fluoroscopic and tomographic examinations.

CLRS 332. Radiographic Pathology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 204 and CLRS 393 with a minimum grade of C or permisison of instructor. Provides introduction to the study of radiographic pathology through reading and observation of film interpretation. Emphasizes recognition of common disease processes as demonstrated radiographically and, via advanced imaging modalities; where appropriate, understanding how to vary positioning and techniques to produce optimally diagnostic images; and the role of different imaging modalities in the evaluation of disease.

CLRS 339. Obstetric and Gynecologic Sonography II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 329. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Introduces maternal and fetal pathology, including fetal congenital abnormalities, placental and umbilical cord anomalies, and fetal neural, thoracic, cardiac, abdominal, urogenital and skeletal abnormalities. Image interpretation and scanning techniques/protocols related to obstetric sonography are discussed.

CLRS 341. Radiation Physics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, PHYZ 101 or PHYS 201 and CLRS 232 with a minimum grade of C. Discusses fundamentals of the atom, electricity and magnetism. Emphasizes the production of X- and gamma rays, and the interaction of radiation with matter.

CLRS 342. Physics for Radiation Therapy. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 323 and CLRS 341 with a minimum grade of C in both. Includes a discussion of the properties of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Details of production, interactions, treatment units, measurement of radiation, radioactivity and brachytherapy are presented.

CLRS 390. Research Methods in the Radiologic Sciences. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: STAT 210 and junior standing or permission of instructor. The fundamentals of the research process will be presented for analysis and discussion. Elements of research appropriate to the radiologic sciences will be reviewed. Emphasis will be on the ability to critically review research studies along with the selection and design of a research project.

CLRS 393. Clinical Education I. 2-5 Hours.

Semester course; 2-5 clinical hours. 2-5 credits (120 contact hours per credit). Prerequisites: CLRS 208 with a minimum grade of C; and CLRS 201, CLRS 300, CLRS 303 or CLRS 305 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain practical experience in routine, basic procedures and observe more advanced procedures.

CLRS 394. Clinical Education II. 2-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 2-4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 393 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain practical experience in routine, basic procedures and observe more advanced procedures.

CLRS 395. Clinical Education III. 2-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 2-6 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 394 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine as well as advanced procedures.

CLRS 398. Introduction to Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS 390. Provides students the opportunity to explore and investigate a topic of special interest in their area of concentration under the supervision of a faculty adviser. Emphasizes the application of research concepts to writing a research project proposal.

CLRS 400. Contemporary Topics in Radiologic Sciences. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 4 lecture hours. 4 credits. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation sciences majors with junior standing or higher. Introduces issues and concepts relevant to the radiologic sciences such as leadership, professionalism, emerging technologies, and ethics and law. Applies advanced topical areas to both general radiologic sciences and individual professional concentrations.

CLRS 401. Pediatric Sonography. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 311. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Investigates anatomy, pathology, image production/interpretation and ultrasound scanning techniques/protocols specific to pediatric ultrasound imaging. Examines anatomical areas such as the pediatric bowel, spine, hips and head/brain.

CLRS 403. Advanced Patient Care for the Imaging Professional. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 208 with a minimum grade of C and junior standing or permission of instructor. Explores advanced patient care techniques and age-specific considerations in the radiation sciences. Emphasizes the application of advanced patient care principles.

CLRS 404. Ultrasound Pathology and Preliminary Writing. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 311 and CLRS 329. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Introduces case studies pertaining to the ultrasonic evaluation of small parts, abdominal organs, pelvic anatomy and obstetrics to increase and assesses the critical-thinking skills needed to proficiently write preliminary ultrasound reports.

CLRS 405. Principles of Mammography. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 201 and CLRS 320 with a minimum grade of C in both and senior standing or permission of instructor. Presentations and discussions designed to provide an overview of the principles of mammography. Topics include history, anatomy, physiology and pathology of the breast; exposure techniques; and quality control. Focuses on routine and specialized positioning of the breast and image evaluation to prepare students for practical experience in mammography.

CLRS 406. Introduction to MRI. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 341 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. An introduction to the elements of magnetic resonance imaging, including instrumentation, physical principles, image production and quality, MR safety, magnetic resonance angiography and imaging applications.

CLRS 407. Introduction to PET/CT. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 408. Overview of PET and PET/CT focusing on instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals and its diagnostic application in neurology, oncology and cardiology.

CLRS 408. Introduction to Computed Tomography (CT). 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 341 with a minimum grade of C or permission of instructor. Provides the student with an overview of computed tomography. Topics include computed tomography physical principles, data acquisition/image reconstruction, equipment and terminology. Patient care issues (i.e., preparation, monitoring) and basic quality control will be introduced.

CLRS 410. Routine Computed Tomography Procedures. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS 206 and 408, or permission of instructor. Presents routine procedures used in computed tomography imaging. Reviews examinations and protocols involving the head, chest, abdomen and extremities.

CLRS 412. Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 323 and CLRS 342 with a minimum grade of C in both or permission of instructor. An introduction to routine 2-D and 3-D treatment planning for the most common forms of cancer including prostate, rectum, lung, breast, and head and neck regions. Simulated lab training using a treatment planning system will be included. Emphasis will be on the rationale and process of treatment planning for patients undergoing radiation therapy.

CLRS 415. Pathology and Treatment Principles II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 314 with a minimum grade of C. A continuation of CLRS 314. Presents the fundamentals of the disease process for the following cancers: gastrointestinal, lymphomas and hematological malignancies, bone tumors, childhood tumors, and eye and orbital tumors. Discusses patient workup and prognosis, treatment results, and the effects of combined therapies. Radiotherapeutic emergencies, palliation and combined modality treatment also will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on traditional and advanced technology and its applications in treatment delivery in radiation oncology. Requires demonstration of competence in selected radiotherapeutic procedures, including positioning of simulated patients and the manipulation of equipment.

CLRS 416. Advanced Vascular Sonography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 302 or permission of the department chair. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation sciences majors or by permission of the department chair. Introduces advanced anatomy, pathology and evaluation techniques of vascular anatomy, including arterial, intracranial cerebrovascular, dialysis grafts and visceral vascular anatomy. Presents processes for performing arterial, transcranial Doppler, dialysis mapping, and visceral vascular protocols and physiologic testing.

CLRS 417. Nuclear Medicine Procedures IV. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 319 with a minimum grade of C. Presents the techniques employed in the performance of advanced nuclear medicine procedures. Topics include anatomy and physiology, pathology, patient preparation, contraindications, radiopharmaceuticals, dose route of administration, biodistribution, imaging protocols, equipment setup, and common findings.

CLRS 420. Introduction to Vascular-Interventional Radiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: departmental approval. Introduction to the basic techniques of vascular and interventional radiologic procedures with emphasis on the anatomy demonstrated, equipment, contrast agents, and the role and responsibilities of the technologist.

CLRS 421. Vascular-Interventional Radiology Procedures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 420. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors or by permission of department chair. Presents an overview of common vascular-interventional radiology procedures to include arteriography (abdominal, peripheral, pulmonary, cardiac and carotid/cerebral) as well as vascular and nonvascular interventions (filter placement, embolization, venous access and management of fluid collection, urinary disease and biliary disease). Emphasis is placed on instrumental, technique and imaging parameters.

CLRS 430. Radiobiology. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 232 with a minimum grade of C and senior standing or permission of instructor. Presents the principles of biologic responses to radiation, including factors influencing radiation effects, tissue sensitivity and tolerance. Clinical application in radiography, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy are reviewed.

CLRS 450. Musculoskeletal Sonography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 302 or permission of the department chair. Enrollment is restricted to clinical radiation sciences majors or by permission of the department chair. Introduces musculoskeletal anatomy, pathology, image production and interpretation, and scanning techniques/protocols related to musculoskeletal sonography to include, but not limited to, the following joints: shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, hip, knee, ankle/foot.

CLRS 453. Quality Management in Nuclear Medicine. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 322 and CLRZ 322 with a minimum grade of C in both. Explores the quality assurance parameters in a nuclear medicine department. Emphasis is given to the performance of tests to assess survey meters, spectrometers, dose calibrators, gamma cameras and SPECT imaging systems. Additionally, quality assurance is discussed in terms of radiopharmaceuticals, radioimmunoassay laboratories and patient management.

CLRS 455. Quality Management in Radiation Therapy. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 323 and CLRS 342 booth with a minimum grade of C. Designed to provide the student with knowledge of the concepts and principles of quality assurance. The performance of various tests including purpose, sources of malfunction and action guidelines will be discussed.

CLRS 461. Radiopharmaceutical: Preparation and Quality Control. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 319, CLRS 322 and CLRZ 322, all with a minimum grade of C. Provides the technical knowledge necessary for the preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceutical agents for in-vivo and in-vitro nuclear medicine studies.

CLRS 471. Radiology Imaging Procedures for Radiologist Assistants I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 332, CLRS 403, CLRZ 403 and permission of instructor. Completion of CLRS 471 to enroll in CLRS 472. Establishes a framework for radiologist assistants' participation in patient examinations for diagnostic inspection and/or therapeutic treatment. Emphasizes establishment of fundamental radiology procedures that follow American College of Radiology Standards for principles and practices producing high-quality radiographic care. Includes basic radiology procedures in genitourinary, gastrointestinal, pediatric, thoracic, musculoskeletal selections and vascular/interventional specialties. Addresses legal, ethical and professional issues concerning radiologist assistants.

CLRS 472. Radiology Imaging Procedures for Radiologist Assistants I and II. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3-3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 332, CLRS 403, CLRZ 403 and permission of instructor. Completion of CLRS 471 to enroll in CLRS 472. Establishes a framework for radiologist assistants' participation in patient examinations for diagnostic inspection and/or therapeutic treatment. Emphasizes establishment of fundamental radiology procedures that follow American College of Radiology Standards for principles and practices producing high-quality radiographic care. Includes basic radiology procedures in genitourinary, gastrointestinal, pediatric, thoracic, musculoskeletal selections and vascular/interventional specialties. Addresses legal, ethical and professional issues concerning radiologist assistants.

CLRS 475. Medical Imaging Fundamentals for Radiologist Assistants. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 332, CLRS 403, CLRZ 403 and permission of instructor. Promotes an understanding of methods and techniques for the systematic observation of static and dynamic diagnostic images for the purpose of evaluating the presence of abnormalities, anomalies and pathological conditions. Includes protocols for drafting memoranda of initial observations based on image assessment.

CLRS 480. Applied Radiology Management. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: departmental approval. Relates basic concepts in management to the radiologic environment and explores the relationship between the radiologic facility and the health care system.

CLRS 481. Applied Pharmacology for Radiologic Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Covers general pharmacology including the study of drug groups, dosages, administrations and reactions of drugs common to patients. Special emphasis on contrast media and other agents commonly used in medical imaging and therapy.

CLRS 488. Senior Seminar. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: senior standing in department. Designed to allow students to integrate the various individual courses into a single perspective as it relates to the radiation sciences. Addresses timely professional issues, including the need for lifelong learning and participation in professional organizations, as well as preparing for certification and future employment.

CLRS 492. Directed Study: Radiologic Sciences. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 independent study hours. 1-4 credits. A maximum of 6 credits can apply toward graduation requirements. Enrollment restricted to clinical radiation science majors. Provides the opportunity for individualized research projects, tutorial studies, special clinical work or other topics not available in formal course work.

CLRS 493. Clinical Education IV. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 395 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures.

CLRS 494. Clinical Education V. 1-5 Hours.

Semester course; variable clinical hours (120 hours per credit). 1-5 credits. Prerequisite: CLRS 493 with a minimum grade of C. Clinical experience supervised by clinical faculty and affiliate facility staff. Students gain additional practical experience in routine, basic and advanced procedures.

CLRS 498. Senior Project. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 seminar hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CLRS 390, CLRS 398 and senior standing in department. Emphasizes the application of research concepts in the design, implementation and presentation of a project under the supervision of a faculty adviser. Students investigate a topic of interest in their area of concentration.

Clinical Radiation Sciences Lab (CLRZ)

CLRZ 201. Radiographic Imaging and Exposure I Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS 205. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 201. Designed to introduce students to the fundamentals of radiographic image production. Requires performance of laboratory exercises to become familiar with equipment operation and manipulate radiation exposure variables to produce quality images.

CLRZ 321. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 303. Corequisite: CLRS 321. Presentation of the applications and techniques employed in the operation of nuclear medicine non-imaging devices. Labs will emphasize the use of survey meters, dose calibrator and scintillation counting device.

CLRZ 322. Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS 321 and CLRZ 321 with a minimum grade of C in both. Corequisite: CLRS 322. Evaluation of applications of different imaging techniques and computer processing utilized in nuclear medicine. Emphasizes the use of single and multiple channel analyzers, planar and SPECT acquisition, and image processing.

CLRZ 403. Advanced Patient Care for the Imaging Professional. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: CLRS 208 or permission of instructor. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 403. This course provides simulated experience in performing advanced patient care techniques related to the radiation sciences. Topics include cardiac rhythm interpretation, advanced cardiac life support, urinary catheterization, tracheostomy care, basic laboratory skills, basic respiratory therapy skills, pulse oximetry, IV therapy and pharmacology, and conscious sedation.

CLRZ 405. Principles of Mammography Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS 201 and CLRS 320, or permission of instructor. Pre- or corequisite: CLRS 405. Provides simulated experience in performing positioning of the breast. Students will be expected to demonstrate competence in positioning the breast phantom for a variety of routine and specialized projections. In addition, quality control procedures specific to mammography will be performed.

CLRZ 461. Radiopharmacy Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CLRS 319, CLRS 322 and CLRZ 322, all with a minimum grade of C. A simulated radiopharmacy laboratory will focus on operation of laboratory equipment in the compounding of radiopharmaceuticals.

Gerontology (GRTY)

GRTY 200. Disrupting Ageism: An Exploration of Diversity and Aging. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an exploration of issues related to social roles, power, intersectionality and how they impact aging -- with an emphasis on gender and sexual minorities. Also focuses on aging within communities of privilege, as well as barriers and opportunities for positive aging among diverse populations.

GRTY 410. Introduction to Gerontology. 3 Hours.

3 credits. A survey of the field of aging with attention to physical, psychological, social, economic and cultural ramifications of age.

Health Care Management (HCMG)

HCMG 300. Health Care Organization and Services. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines the structure and function of the U.S. health services delivery system. Examines the role and responsibilities of health care professions and occupations, technology and financing arrangements in the delivery system.

Patient Counseling (PATC)

PATC 410. Basic Patient Counseling. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an intensive course of study toward the development of pastoral skills in the hospital context. Assigns students to selected clinical areas with faculty supervision. Utilizes group process and individual supervision for the review of clinical material.

Rehabilitation Counseling (RHAB)

RHAB 201. Introduction to Rehabilitation Services. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course has been designed to expose the student to the history and development of the rehabilitation movement. Topics explored include basic concepts and philosophies of rehabilitation, psychological and vocational adjustments of the disabled, and an examination of selected rehabilitation methods.

RHAB 202. General Substance Abuse Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course is designed to help the student develop an appreciation of society's attitude about the use of drugs and alcohol, and each individual's responsibility in decisions about the use of drugs. Discussion is offered on specific characteristics of drugs, how addiction occurs and role of rehabilitation after addiction.

RHAB 321. Introduction to Substance Abuse. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: RHAB 202. Introduction to substance abuse as a progressive family disease with consideration of basic contributing factors (physiological, psychological and sociocultural builds on foundation established in RHAB 202); exposure to multidisciplinary rehabilitative approaches to arresting the disease, as well as some knowledge of intervention; brief mention of the highlights of the continuum of care available in the recovery process.

RHAB 452. Crisis Intervention with the Substance Abuser. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RHAB 321, RHAB 322 and RHAB 523, or permission of instructor. Focus on the application of concepts discussed in theory in the recovery process course; sharing of difficulties and successes with crisis intervention by individuals already in the field; provision of new and more refined techniques under the direction of experts demonstrating their applicability.

RHAB 495. Practicum in Rehabilitation. 6,9 Hours.

Semester course; 3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. Designed to provide opportunities for observation and participation in rehabilitation and related settings. Experiences are systematically related to theoretical concepts.

College of Humanities and Sciences

African American Studies (AFAM)

AFAM 104. Sociology of Racism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The course will explore the direct and indirect ways in which racial attitudes are acquired, their effect on individuals and society, and the institutional and ideological manifestations of racism as a "faith system," as exploitation and as a form of human conflict. The central focus of interest will be on black-white relationships. Crosslisted as: SOCY 104.

AFAM 105. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: HIST 105.

AFAM 106. Survey of African History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of African civilizations from prehistory to the present, emphasizing the events, ideas and institutions that have shaped, influenced and defined Africa's place in the world. First semester: to 1800. Second semester: 1800 to the present. Crosslisted as: HIST 106.

AFAM 111. Introduction to Africana Studies. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Introduction to Africana Studies [View Image]

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Using a multidisciplinary approach, this course will familiarize students with important events developments, personalities and other phenomena that help facilitate the study and understanding of peoples of African descent dispersed throughout the world from their early continental African past to their present existence.

AFAM 121. Tap Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Beginning study and training in the principles of tap technique with emphasis upon style, body alignment, spatial patterning, flexibility, strength and kinesthetic awareness to move the body in the style required for tap dancing. Crosslisted as: DANC 121.

AFAM 122. Tap Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Beginning study and training in the principles of tap technique with emphasis upon style, body alignment, spatial patterning, flexibility, strength and kinesthetic awareness to move the body in the style required for tap dancing. Crosslisted as: DANC 122.

AFAM 126. African-Caribbean Dance I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Dance based on the movements and rhythms of Africa and the Caribbean. Crosslisted as: DANC 126.

AFAM 127. African-Caribbean Dance I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Dance based on the movements and rhythms of Africa and the Caribbean. Crosslisted as: DANC 127.

AFAM 151. Jazz Dance Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: DANC 102 or permission of instructor. Study and training in the principles and concepts of jazz technique. Emphasis on body alignment, flexibility, balance, rhythmic awareness and mastery of isolated movements of body parts. The course includes the exploration of the relationship between jazz music and jazz dance. Crosslisted as: DANC 151.

AFAM 152. Jazz Dance Technique I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 studio hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: DANC 102 or permission of instructor. Study and training in the principles and concepts of jazz technique. Emphasis on body alignment, flexibility, balance, rhythmic awareness and mastery of isolated movements of body parts. The course includes the exploration of the relationship between jazz music and jazz dance. Crosslisted as: DANC 152.

AFAM 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: ANTH 200/INTL 200.

AFAM 201. Theories and Foundations of Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Explores the origins of African American studies in the civil rights and Black Power movements. Examines critical issues and perspectives in the discipline from its inception to the present day. Possible topics include black nationalism, neo-colonialism, Kawaida theory, black women's studies, Afrocentrism, Egyptology, black queer studies, critical race theory, diaspora theory and community engagement.

AFAM 204. Africa in Transition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM/ANTH/INTL 200 or permission of instructor. The impact of modern social change upon the traditional aspects of African life. Various aspects of social change as it applies to Africa today will be explored.

AFAM 211. Africana Social and Political Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Guides students in identifying and mapping the continuities and discontinuities in political and social thought of the African world. Through an exploration of the various works of scholars, activists and artists, this course will expose students to nondominant narratives in an effort to expand the breadth and depth of interdependence in Africana contributions to ideas such as, but not limited to, the arts, justice, equality and human emancipation.

AFAM 291. Topics in African American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of nine credits. A study of specialized areas of African American studies.

AFAM 302. Politics of the Civil Rights Movement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The main objectives of the course are to introduce and examine the personalities and activities of the modern Civil Rights Movement. The course provides the historical background leading up to the peak years of the struggle for racial equality in America. It has special focus on the events of the 1960s and particularly their implication for the current state of U.S. Civil Rights. Crosslisted as: POLI 302.

AFAM 303. Black Theatre. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the major developments in the evolution of black theatre through readings and studio performances in black-related and black theatre dramaturgy. Crosslisted as: THEA 303.

AFAM 305. African American Family in Social Context. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101. A socio-historical examination of the development of the family system of Americans from Africa. Focuses on large-scale (macro level) processes such as changes in the major mode of economic production and in political systems and the corresponding changes in black family structure and functioning. Presents the theoretical material on African-American families and social change that prepares students for further study of the family as a social institution and for the study of family policy. This course is designed to meet the needs of upper-division social science majors. Crosslisted as: GSWS 305/SOCY 305.

AFAM 307. Black Religion. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An analysis of the role of religion in the lives of blacks with an emphasis on African religions and philosophies, the black church in America, and the roles of the various faiths, sects and cults. Crosslisted as: RELS 307/INTL 307.

AFAM 309. Gender and Global Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines how health policies produce and regulate gendered bodies and sexualities. Topics may include how colonial medicine and health policies of detection, diagnosis, surveillance, quarantine and confinement were implemented as methods of social control. Analyzes continuities between colonial medicine and more contemporary interventions that in the name of individual and communal health attempt to shape proper sexualities and gendering. Crosslisted as: ANTH 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

AFAM 310. Black Health Matters: Social Determinants of Health in the African American Community. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines health inequalities and health inequities in the U.S. Explores the primary health concerns and issues relating to the African American community. Focuses on social determinants of infant mortality, cardiovascular disease, AIDS, violence and cancer, as well as the impact these determinants have on the overall health status of African Americans.

AFAM 311. African Diaspora Experiences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Traces the geography and history of dispersed African peoples from their motherland to all parts of the world and reveals the cultural, social, political and economic developments of peoples of African descent worldwide. Surveys the evolution and implication of the trans-Atlantic, trans-Saharan, and trans-Indian Ocean slave trade, in particular the dimensions of experiences of African-descended peoples with emphasis not only on North and South America but also the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, Papua New Guinea and Australia.

AFAM 318. Politics of Race, Class and Gender. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the racial, class and gender influences on the history and development of political values, conflicts, processes, structures and public policy in the United States. Crosslisted as: POLI 318/GSWS 318.

AFAM 322. Personality and Behavior of the African American. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: PSYC 101. A study of personality factors such as motivation, ego-functioning and the socialization processes, with special emphasis on living conditions of African-Americans. Crosslisted as: PSYC 322.

AFAM 330. Black Sights and Sites: Visual Media and Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An exploration of the politics of representing race in U.S. visual media within broader economic, political and cultural contexts. Possible areas of focus include fashion, TV/film, music, new media, visual art and sports.

AFAM 333. Geography of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the land forms, climate, peoples, livelihoods, settlement patterns and cultural groupings of sub-Saharan Africa. Crosslisted as: URSP 333/INTL 333.

AFAM 338. Ferguson, USA: The Criminalization of Race in Historical Perspective. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examines African American encounters with the criminal justice system from the era of emancipation to the present day. Possible topics include constructions of race; the science of criminality; extra-legal violence; the civil rights movement and black power; prison politics; mass incarceration; the school-to-prison pipeline; Black Lives Matter.

AFAM 342. African-American Art. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the art forms produced by Americans of African origin from the 17th century to the present with an emphasis on contemporary trends in black art. Crosslisted as: ARTH 342.

AFAM 343. Black Political Thought. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An historical and sociological perspective on the political and social ideas of black thinkers from David Walker to the present. Crosslisted as: POLI 343.

AFAM 345. African-American Politics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. In this course, students will discuss and analyze the dynamics of the black experience in the American political system. The status of African-Americans in the United States and the struggle for racial equality will be examined, as will the manner in which American institutions have responded to these phenomena. Students will examine the race/class metric in African-American politics, particularly policies of Affirmative Action as a black progress strategy. Crosslisted as: POLI 345.

AFAM 346. Mental Health Across the African Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Surveys theory and research on the interaction of culture and mental illness focusing primarily on populations of African descent in a seminar format. Topics to be addressed, through the lens of the Africana world, include epidemiological and ethnographic research on major psychiatric disorders, culture-bound syndromes and idioms of distress, mental health of immigrants and refugees, and cross-cultural competence in clinical practice.

AFAM 347. African American Children and Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Reviews cultural variations in the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of African American children. Addresses historical and contemporary frameworks of child development and highlights the strengths and limitations of extant research paradigms in the study of African American children. Considers integrity-based approaches that explain the developmental competencies of African American children in response to environmental risks that exceed normative expectations.

AFAM 350. Studies in the Music of the African Continent and Diaspora. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: MHIS 243 or MHIS/AFAM 250. An in-depth examination of selected topics and issues in African-derived musical and cultural traditions. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. Crosslisted as: MHIS 350/INTL 370.

AFAM 356. Government and Politics of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course will introduce students to the basic outlines of government and politics in Africa. The course will consider such topics as colonialism, elitism, and nationalism and modernization strategies. Using the comparative approach, the course will primarily focus on West, East and Central Africa. Crosslisted as: POLI 356/INTL 356.

AFAM 357. Politics of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An examination of racial and political developments in the southern tip of Africa. While South Africa will be the primary focus of analysis, other countries in the region such as Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique will be studied. Crosslisted as: POLI 357/INTL 357.

AFAM 358. African Art and Architecture. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of African art and architecture from prehistoric times to the present. Special emphasis is placed on form, content, function and meaning, as well as the impact of African art on modern and African-American art. Crosslisted as: ARTH 358.

AFAM 361. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: HIST 361.

AFAM 362. Americans from Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of blacks in the United States, designed to analyze some of the most important aspects of black life and the attitudes of the dominant society within which blacks lived. The second semester emphasizes the changing status, expectations and ideologies of black Americans in the 20th century. First semester: to 1877. Second semester: since 1877. Crosslisted as: HIST 362.

AFAM 363. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of regional and/or cultural traditions of African literature with special attention paid to socio-political perspectives. Crosslisted as: ENGL 363/INTL 366.

AFAM 365. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: ENGL 365/INTL 367.

AFAM 379. African-American Literature: Beginnings Through the Harlem Renaissance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An examination of the culture and literature of African Americans from their roots in Africa and the African Diaspora to the Harlem Renaissance. Authors may include Wheatley, Douglass, DuBois, Hurston, Hughes and Cullen. Crosslisted as: ENGL 379.

AFAM 382. African-American Literature: Realism to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An examination of the culture and literature of African-Americans from the Harlem Renaissance to the present day. Authors may include Wright, Ellison, Hayden, Brooks, Walker and Morrison. Crosslisted as: ENGL 382.

AFAM 387. History of West Africa to 1800. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the transformation of West African societies from early times to 1800, with emphasis on the rise of states and empires, the introduction, spread and impact of Islam, the Atlantic slave trade and its effects, and colonialism. Crosslisted as: HIST 381.

AFAM 389. History of Southern Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A study of the history and culture of the peoples of southern Africa. Deals with the areas that presently are the Republic of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia and Zimbabwe. Emphasizes the interaction among the various communities and ethnolinguistic groups in southern Africa. Crosslisted as: HIST 383.

AFAM 390. Forced and Coerced Labor in Africa and the Americas. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines a broad range of forced and coerced labor in Africa and selected parts of the Americas, including the United States, Canada and the Caribbean, from around the 17th century to the 20th century. The role that gender and race played in slavery and coerced labor will be given particular attention. Crosslisted as: GSWS 390/HIST 380.

AFAM 391. Topics in African American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of nine credits. A focused study of specialized areas of African American studies.

AFAM 392. Caribbean History to 1838. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An exploration of changes in the structure of Caribbean society from the late 15th century to 1838, with emphasis on the development of plantation slavery, social stratification, race, slave resistance, the Haitian Revolution, African cultural patterns and abolition. Crosslisted as: HIST 376.

AFAM 393. Akhenaten to Cleopatra. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of Egyptian history from the period of the Empire (New Kingdom, c. 1570 B.C.) through the Ptolemaic Age of Cleopatra (c. 30 B.C.). Particular areas of concentration will include the Amarna Period of Akhenaten and various aspects of Egyptian daily life.

AFAM 394. Service-learning in African American Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM 310. Open to African-American studies majors only. Provides an overview of critical public health issues and intervention strategies that may influence life chances and disease susceptibility among African-Americans through a service-learning format.

AFAM 399. Interdisciplinary Research Methods. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Introduces students to the interdisciplinary processes whereby those working in the field develop their arguments and interpretations concerning the black experience. Students will develop increased skills in library research and an awareness of the importance of such methodologies as archaeology, oral history, case studies, participant observations, experiments and surveys. Students will be introduced to the need for critical analysis, the role of biases and frames of references and the reason why scholars working in the field often reach different conclusions with reference to issues of fact, interpretation and significance.

AFAM 411. Applied Concepts in Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: AFAM 111 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: AFAM 399. Explores the processes and challenges involved in studying the experiences of African-descended peoples, with a focus on the development of an idea or observation into a finished and well-executed research product. Investigates how these processes unfold in the works of specific black studies researchers, as they capture the varied consciousnesses, histories and social forces surrounding black life in America, Africa and throughout the diaspora.

AFAM 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: ANTH 416.

AFAM 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: ANTH 420/INTL 420.

AFAM 440. Modern and Contemporary Art and Architecture of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARTH 300, ARTH 302, ARTH 303, ARTH 304, ARTH 305, ARTH 310, ARTH 315, ARTH 320, ARTH 324, ARTH 325, ARTH 333, ARTH 335, ARTH 338, ARTH 339, ARTH 342, ARTH 344, ARTH 347, ARTH 348, ARTH 349, ARTH 351, ARTH 357, ARTH 358, ARTH 359, ARTH 361, ARTH 365, ARTH 366, ARTH 367, ARTH 368, ARTH 369, ARTH 370, ARTH 372, ARTH 374, ARTH 390 or ARTH 391. A study of the impact on African art and architecture of Colonialism, urbanization and modernization. Special emphasis is placed on the search for a new identity by contemporary African artists. Crosslisted as: ARTH 440.

AFAM 451. Religion, Racism and Social Justice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: RELS 340/INTL 341, WRLD 210 or WRLD 220; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Explores the complex history and contemporary relationships between religion, racism and social justice. Crosslisted as: INTL 451/RELS 451.

AFAM 491. Topics in African-American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits; 3 credits may be applied to the African-American studies minor. An in-depth study of specialized areas of African-American studies.

AFAM 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum 4 credits per semester. Maximum total of 4 credits in all independent study courses. Prerequisites: completion of 12 credits in African-American studies courses; junior or senior standing.

AFAM 493. Internship in Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 field experience hours. 3 credits (minimum of 50 work hours per credit). Prerequisites: AFAM 201, AFAM 211 and AFAM 311. Enrollment is restricted to African American studies majors of junior or senior standing; permission from the department chair or internship coordinator is also required. Students will be placed in internships that provide real-life experience working with populations of African descent with the goal of defining, improving, affirming and/or validating black experiences in the African diaspora. Graded as pass/fail.

AFAM 494. Internship in African American Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 150 clock hours in appropriate organization. 3 credits. Prerequisites: AFAM 310, either AFAM/ANTH/INTL/WMNS/GSWS 309 or AFAM/PSYC 322, and AFAM 394. Applicants must be approved by the internship coordinator. Open to African-American studies majors of senior standing only. Students are placed in organizations that offer supervised work or research experience in a health setting appropriate to their interests. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship.

AFAM 499. Capstone Seminar in Africana Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: AFAM 111, AFAM 211, AFAM 311 and AFAM 399. Enrollment is restricted to African American studies majors of senior standing. Involves the planning and execution of a research project grounded in the methodology of African American studies.

American Studies (AMST)

AMST 195. Richmond. 1 Hour.

15 contact hours. 1 credit. A series of mini-courses dealing with aspects of Richmond's literary and historical importance from the city's beginning to the present.

AMST 391. Topics in American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit. Selected issues or problems in American civilization with materials drawn from such areas as history, the social sciences, philosophy, literature, the arts and mass communications.

AMST 394. Perspectives in American Studies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 6 credits in American-related courses. An introduction to the methods, significant works and major trends in American studies. May be taken for American literature credit by English majors. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences.

Anthropology (ANTH)

ANTH 103. Introduction to Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A general survey of anthropology with emphasis on learning about and from global cultures, and on the four fields of anthropology.

ANTH 105. Introduction to Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A survey of archaeological sites, methods and theories from around the world, from the earliest human cultures, to the rise and spread of civilizations, to the modern era. Crosslisted as: INTL 104.

ANTH 200. Introduction to African Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. This course introduces the student to the African continent, its peoples and cultures. It covers such general characteristics as the physical and geographical features, climate, topography, traditional economies, languages, religions, social systems and other cultural features that are traditional to its people. Crosslisted as: AFAM 200/INTL 200.

ANTH 210. Biological Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of biological anthropology. Emphasis on the history and study of humans as biological organisms. Topics include genetic, social and ecological determinants of variation in human growth and biological diversity, as well as human adaptation and adaptability, disease, diet, and nutrition.

ANTH 220. Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of social and cultural anthropology. Provides an overview of key themes and theories in the subject, as well as the analytical and methodological tools to critically consider cultural difference, social organization and social change, with reference to a representative range of culture areas and the empirical fields studied by cultural anthropologists.

ANTH 230. Anthropological Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Explores the disciplinary subfield of anthropological linguistics. Emphasis is on the interactions between language and culture from a comparative perspective, as well as the relationship between language and social identities and relationships. Also an introduction to the field's methodology, research techniques, analytical tools and their applications.

ANTH 301. Human Evolution. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology and the hominin fossil record. Crosslisted as: BIOL 341.

ANTH 302. Archaeological Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the basic theoretical perspectives and tools of archaeology, including analysis and interpretation of archaeological materials. Students will review the intellectual history of archaeology, applying a variety of theoretical approaches to archaeological data sets and sites.

ANTH 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 105/INTL 104 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the basic practices of archaeology, including planning, excavation, artifact analysis, documentary research, mapping, dating sites and artifacts, and interpretation and presentation of findings. Students will participate in an active field research program and will apply methods at an active site and lab.

ANTH 304. Sociology of Families. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: SOCY 101 or ANTH 103/INTL 103. The family in its social and cultural context. Analysis of child rearing, marriage, kinship, family crises and family change in various societies around the world. Crosslisted as: SOCY 304/GSWS 304.

ANTH 307. Human Osteology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210. Corequisite: ANTZ 307. Emphasizes human skeletal development and the identification of specific bones and their anatomical landmarks, including the determination of side for paired bones. Also discussed are methods of estimating age, sex and stature from human skeletal remains and application of human skeletal data to broader anthropological questions.

ANTH 309. Gender and Global Health. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Examines how health policies produce and regulate gendered bodies and sexualities. Topics may include how colonial medicine and health policies of detection, diagnosis, surveillance, quarantine and confinement were implemented as methods of social control. Analyzes continuities between colonial medicine and more contemporary interventions that in the name of individual and communal health attempt to shape proper sexualities and gendering. Crosslisted as: AFAM 309/INTL 309/GSWS 309.

ANTH 310. Forensic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or FRSC 300 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive overview of forensic anthropology including its development and the theory and methodology on which it is based. Crosslisted as: FRSC 310.

ANTH 312. History of Human Settlement. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A cultural and historical geography of human migration and settlement over the earth. Topics may include agricultural and urban systems, exploration, colonization and imperialism, and changing relationships with the environment, during and since the Middle Ages. Crosslisted as: URSP 312.

ANTH 315. Field Methods and Research Design in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103, and ANTH 220 or ANTH 230. Overview of quantitative and qualitative anthropological field techniques as well as the ethical dimension of anthropological fieldwork. Basics of research design, effective methodology and writing grant proposals.

ANTH 321. Gender and Culture in Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and AFAM/ANTH/INTL 200; or AFAM 111. Promotes an understanding of certain issues and conditions of women and their developing positions and statuses on the African continent. Among the topics to be considered are health and reproductive issues, women as political agents (vis-à-vis men), human rights debates, environmental practices, customary and traditional rites versus modernization, law and justice, and the concept of African feminism.

ANTH 328. Language, Culture and Cognition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 220 or 230. Introduces theoretical and methodological foundations for the study of language from sociocultural perspectives. The perspectives include linguistic, philosophical, psychological, sociological and anthropological contributions to the understanding of verbal and nonverbal communication as a social activity embedded in cultural contexts. No prior training in linguistics is presupposed. Crosslisted as: FRLG 328/ENGL 392/LING 392.

ANTH 330. Language and Prehistory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 230, ANTH/ENGL/LING 390 or ANTH/ENGL 392. Considers the basic principles of diachronic linguistics in terms of the questions that historical linguists ask and the kinds of data they have at their disposal to answer them. Discusses uses of linguistic data in the reconstruction of prehistory in different parts of the world, analyzing strengths and weaknesses of such data and suggesting ways in which it can be usefully combined with data from other disciplines.

ANTH 331. Public Culture: Anthropology Through Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; WRLD 230. Explores how anthropology can contribute to a critical analysis of films as cultural representations. Class discussion will relate particular films both to the cultural context they depict and to the cultural context in which they were produced. Will also examine films as images that produce cultural meanings with the potential to affect the viewer's understanding of the world and comprehension of self.

ANTH 348. South American Ethnography. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. General ethnographic survey of both highland and lowland indigenous cultures of South America and cultural changes as a result of European contact. Crosslisted as: INTL 348.

ANTH 349. Rethinking a Continent: Latin America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. This course surveys contemporary cultures of Latin America. It addresses historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective and introduces concepts from social justice studies, development anthropology and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 349.

ANTH 350. Rethinking a Continent: Europe. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of historical sociocultural developments from an anthropological perspective with an emphasis on integrative and disintegrative forces that have shaped cultures and identities in Europe. Introduces concepts from sociocultural anthropology, social justice studies and applied anthropology. Crosslisted as: INTL 350.

ANTH 355. Death and Burial. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Explores beliefs about the dead across time and space, the transformations physical bodies undergo after death and how archaeologists investigate human remains to interpret the beliefs and social practices of past cultures.

ANTH 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ENGL 364.

ANTH 370. Visualizing and Exhibiting Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Addresses the ability to visualize the knowledge gathered by anthropologists through forms of technology such as three-dimensional artifact scanning and 3D printing. Students will use the hundreds of objects scanned by archaeologists and ethnographers across the globe, including in VCU’s Virtual Curation Laboratory, to design dynamic hands-on and virtual exhibits and activities that communicate multiple perspectives on the human condition and that are designed to stimulate and provoke multiple reactions and encourage discussion.

ANTH 375. Field Archaeology. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 8 field and laboratory hours. 6 credits. Introduction to archaeological field and basic laboratory techniques. Archaeological data collection (excavation or survey) forms the core of the course.

ANTH 380. Medical Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or 220. An introduction to the biological and cultural anthropological study of global health and well-being, including healing processes, the biosocial relations of healing management and relationships between biomedicine and pluralistic medical systems.

ANTH 381. Modern Identities: Nation Building. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Critically explores how nation building and national identities have developed over the past two centuries among peoples across the globe. Class discussions will examine theoretical perceptions of these processes and focus on how they shaped and shape realities in different times and places. Crosslisted as: INTL 381.

ANTH 383. Evolutionary Medicine and Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210, BIOL 101 or BIOL 151. Explores how modern human health and disease have been shaped by evolutionary processes. Particular emphasis is placed on examining health-related traits that are adaptive in one context but maladaptive in others, and why attempts to eliminate some of these traits can have deleterious effects on other aspects of our health. Specific diseases to be addressed include hypertension, diabetes, clinical depression, reproductive disorders, gastrointestinal disorders and drug addiction, among many others.

ANTH 387. Environmental Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Provides an introduction to the kinds of environmental evidence archaeologists access and the kinds of questions they investigate using that evidence. Explores a variety of ways in which archaeologists examine the relationship between humans and the environment and the sorts of effects that different environmental conditions and changes have had on ancient societies.

ANTH 388. African Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Surveys the range of archaeological knowledge currently available about the African continent, highlighting the major interrelated social, economic/technological and cultural transformations in the African past and the most important archaeological sites and discoveries there. Addresses themes of Africa’s enduring connections with the rest of the world, unique patterns of social and cultural development found on the continent, relations between African societies and their environments, and the contemporary significance of the continent’s cultural heritage.

ANTH 389. World Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 103 or ANTH 105. Examines the diversity and evolution of human cultures through archaeological practices and techniques.

ANTH 390. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An introduction to methods of language analysis, emphasizing the study of sounds and sound patterns, and units of meaning and their arrangements. Crosslisted as: ENGL 390/LING 390.

ANTH 391. Topics in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses that may be applied to the major. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

ANTH 394. Historical Archaeology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 or ANTH 105/INTL 104, and any history course. A review of historical archaeology, recognizing its contemporary emphasis on the spread of European cultures across the globe beginning in the 15th century. Methods and findings of archaeological research from the United States, Europe and Africa will be covered with special emphasis on the study of documents and artifacts related to the emergence and present state of the modern world. Students will participate in field research. Crosslisted as: HIST 390.

ANTH 398. Field Investigations in Anthropology. 1-8 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-8 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Permission of instructor required. A course involving travel and/or study in an off-campus context. Intended primarily for students participating in directed study abroad programs, the course meets the experiential learning requirement for the anthropology major.

ANTH 399. Junior Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: ANTH 210, 220 or 230; and junior standing. Focuses on self-assessment, compilation of a portfolio and curriculum vitae, career and graduate school preparation, and lifelong application of skills and knowledge acquired in the program. Students will critically assess their experience in the anthropology program.

ANTH 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: BIOL 403.

ANTH 415. Economic Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Provides an overview of the anthropological approach to the "economic" in social life. Analyzes the role played by systems of reciprocity and exchange in ethnographic contexts. Concepts employed by anthropologists in the study of traditional subsistence economies are used to examine modern industrialized societies. Crosslisted as: INTL 415.

ANTH 416. The Origin and Evolution of the Idea of Race. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103 or permission of instructor. This course is an exploration of the origins and social history of the "idea" of race from the Middle Ages to the end of the 20th century. Using both historical and anthropological scholarship, the course presents an analytical framework for race as a sociocultural phenomenon. Crosslisted as: AFAM 416.

ANTH 420. Women of Africa. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH/INTL 103 or AFAM 103. This course looks at the traditional roles of women in African societies and examines how women have coped in different environments. It focuses on the institutionalized aspects of similarities and differences in women's lives in pastoral and horticultural societies and those with mixed economies, and will contrast these with women's roles in large state societies of Africa and in the modern urbanized context. Crosslisted as: AFAM 420/INTL 420.

ANTH 425. Religion, Magic and Witchcraft. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103 and UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the nature and variety of beliefs outside of the major streams of religious thought. Among topics considered are myth, totemism, taboo and sorcery. Emphasis on understanding supernatural beliefs and practices in relation to culture and society. Crosslisted as: RELS 425/INTL 425.

ANTH 450. Cross-cultural Communication. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the dynamics of cross-cultural communication that applies linguistic tools to understanding cultural issues and solving communication problems. Crosslisted as: ENGL 454/INTL 454.

ANTH 454. Theory in Cultural Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 220 or ANTH 230, and at least one 3-credit 300-level ANTH course . A study of the connections between theoretical work that addresses understandings of culture and methodological practice centered on creating ethnography.

ANTH 455. Anthropology of Development and Globalization. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: INTL 101. May be taken for a maximum of nine credit hours in three different world areas. Consists of a global study of the developing Third World with particular emphasis on rural populations, subsistence farmers, indigenous groups and small entrepreneurs. Focuses on development and globalization while providing insights into the peasantry as a class, women in peasant societies, changes in peasant societies and the peasantry as a player in the policies of the modern state. Crosslisted as: INTL 455.

ANTH 457. Comparative Perspectives on Cultures and Societies. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Examination of the theoretical, methodological and ethical problems that arise from anthropological comparisons of cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 457.

ANTH 469. Human Dentition: ID and Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 lecture hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: ANTH 103 and ANTH 210; or ANTH 301; or BIOL 318. Focuses on the evolutionary anthropology of human dentition. Topics include evolution, genetics and ontogeny of the dentition; functional aspects of tooth size and shape; dental asymmetry; dental morphology and population affinities; dental pathology and subsistence; and dental markers of physiological stress. Students will explore within- and between-group variation, as well as the relationship between dental size and shape and behavior, relatedness and nutrition.

ANTH 490. Anthropology Senior Capstone. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of 15 credits in anthropology at the 300 and 400 level or the equivalent; senior standing. Open only to anthropology majors. Explores current research that transects more than one subfield of anthropology. Research foci will be at the discretion of the instructor, but students will explore how the anthropological subfields influence and speak to each other in new translational research, and will assess the emerging literature and scientific questions with a critical and scientific perspective.

ANTH 491. Advanced Topics in Anthropology. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Maximum 6 credits per semester with different topics.Prerequisites: ANTH/INTL 103; ANTH 210, 220, or 230; and UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Seminar on current specialized areas of anthropological interest. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester. A maximum total of 18 credits in departmental topics courses (including ANTH 391 and 491) may be applied to the major.

ANTH 492. Independent Study. 1-6 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 6 credits per semester; maximum total of 12 credits for all independent study and internship courses. Prerequisites: determination of the amount of credit and permission of the instructor and the group coordinator must be procured prior to enrollment in the course; a minimum GPA of 3.0 in the major. Generally open only to students of junior or senior standing who have acquired at least 12 credits in the anthropology program.

ANTH 493. Anthropology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits (40 clock hours per credit). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits for majors and 3 credits for minors. Prerequisites: completion of 9 credits in anthropology courses at the 300 level or above, and permission of the internship coordinator. Student must be in good academic standing with a minimum major GPA of 2.25. Designed for the advanced student to gain workplace experience in a local, national or international business or agency offering opportunities in anthropological field methods or research.

ANTH 497. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

ANTH 498. Honors in Anthropology. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. ANTH 497 is a prerequisite for ANTH 498. Design and completion of a long-term research project in the major. The thesis project is the culmination of an advanced course of study within the anthropology program. Under the supervision of a faculty mentor, students must demonstrate a thorough understanding and use of anthropological research techniques and analysis, a knowledge of relevant literature, and sophisticated writing and research abilities. Students must apply to program for participation in honors thesis work. See Bulletin for eligibility criteria and application procedure.

Anthropology Lab (ANTZ)

ANTZ 301. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: BIOZ 341.

ANTZ 303. Archaeological Methods and Research Design Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 303. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 303. Exercises emphasize practical applications of describing, cataloging and analyzing artifacts and faunal and floral remains from archaeological excavations.

ANTZ 307. Human Osteology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 307. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 307. Exercises will emphasize practical description and identification of human bones and bony morphology, as well as associated soft tissue structures.

ANTZ 403. Primatology Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Laboratory exercises correlated with ANTH 403/BIOL 403. Exercises will emphasize comparative studies of morphology, behavior and social systems between and among primate groups, as well as the evolution of these characteristics in extant species and populations.

Arabic (ARBC)

ARBC 101. Beginning Arabic I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment requires any student with previous exposure to Arabic to take the placement test to determine eligibility. For students with no prior knowledge of Arabic. Beginning grammar, reading, writing and oral skills.

ARBC 102. Beginning Arabic II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 101 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Continuation of beginning grammar, reading, writing and oral skills.

ARBC 201. Intermediate Arabic I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 102 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Arabic. Building toward intermediate-level cultural competence and proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing through authentic materials.

ARBC 202. Intermediate Arabic II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Arabic. Increasing intermediate-level cultural competence and proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing through authentic materials.

ARBC 205. Intermediate Conversation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 201. Designed to increase student proficiency in the spoken language through audio-oral exercises, dialogues and conversation.

ARBC 301. Communication and Composition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202, ARBC 205 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Arabic. Building toward intermediate-high proficiency in the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal and presentational. Authentic materials enhance intercultural competence and communication skills.

ARBC 391. Topics in Arabic: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisite: ARBC 202 or equivalent. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 9 credits. Conducted in Arabic. An in-depth study of selected topics in Arabic. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Biology (BIOL)

BIOL 101. Biological Concepts. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. A topical approach to basic biological principles. Topics include molecular aspects of cells, bioenergetics, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, cellular and organismal reproduction, genetics and evolution, and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the major in biology.

BIOL 103. Global Environmental Biology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours (delivered mostly online). 4 credits. Online presentations, assignments, debates and exams require students to understand situations and ideas that involve scientific, social and economic concepts associated with Earth’s environment. Laboratory exercises reinforce major course concepts. Integrates aspects of biology, chemistry, geology, physics and sociology. Topics include ecology, evolution, natural resources, air and water resources, energy and recycling, population biology, and sustainable global societies. Not applicable as a prerequisite for any biology course at the 200 level or above, nor for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 151. Introduction to Biological Sciences I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 141, MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam; and CHEM 100 with a minimum grade of B, CHEM 101 with a minimum grade of C or a satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam. Introduction to core biological concepts including cell structure, cellular metabolism, cell division, DNA replication, gene expression and genetics. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 152. Introduction to Biological Sciences II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and CHEM 101, both with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on evolutionary principles, the role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, taxonomy and phylogenies, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and and basic principles of ecology. Designed for biology majors.

BIOL 200. Quantitative Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours (delivered online or hybrid). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151 with minimum grades of C; and MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within a one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Enrollment is restricted to biology majors and biology minors. An introduction to the application of the scientific method, experimental design and quantitative aspects of biology.

BIOL 201. Human Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151, or 152, or BIOL/ENVS 103. Fundamentals of human biology, including the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, human evolution, and the interaction of humans with the environment. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 205. Basic Human Anatomy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours (plus online component). 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students majoring in communication arts, health and physical education, health, physical education and exercise science; pre-health majors in clinical laboratory sciences, clinical radiation sciences, dental hygiene and nursing; students enrolled in the health sciences certificate program; and students in the advising tracks for pre-occupational therapy, pre-physician assistant, pre-pharmacy and pre-physical therapy. Additionally, students in the pre-dentistry and pre-nursing accelerated advising tracks must speak with a pre-professional health adviser prior to enrolling in the class. Human specimens, models and interactive software are used to study human body structures; emphasis is on the skeleto-muscular aspects. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 209. Medical Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 101 and BIOZ 101, BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151, or BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. General principles of microbiology and immunology to provide a thorough understanding of the host-microbe relationship in disease. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 217. Principles of Nutrition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152 with a minimum grade of C, or BIOL/ENVS 103 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to basic principles of nutrition and their application in promoting growth and maintaining health throughout the life cycle. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOL 284. Laboratory Assistant Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the departmental chair and limited to students for whom a laboratory supervisor has agreed to mentor their laboratory assistantship. Helps facilitate student involvement in research laboratories within the Department of Biology. Students will assist with components of the laboratory’s operation and gain experience working in a laboratory setting. Students will gain hands-on experience in performing tasks related to specific research areas based on the laboratory in which they are accepted to work. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 291. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 300. Cellular and Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212 or STAT 314. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. A study of the molecular biology of the cell as it relates to gene expression, cell signaling, and cell growth and differentiation.

BIOL 303. Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The morphological, biochemical, taxonomic, genetic and evolutionary characteristics of microorganisms with a primary focus on bacteria. Focuses on the structural, mechanical and biochemical adaptations employed by microorganisms in their interactions with host cells and substrates.

BIOL 304. Biology Skills. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour (delivered online) and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151 and permission of instructor. This course provides a hands-on experience in laboratory techniques, emphasizes the development of library and informational fluency skills, and uses current biological and/or biomedical research topics to aid in development of critical-thinking and problem-solving skills.

BIOL 307. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. The physical, chemical and especially the biological aspects of freshwater ecosystems.

BIOL 308. Vertebrate Histology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Microanatomy of vertebrate cells, tissues and organs and the relationship of structure to function. Laboratory work involves an in-depth study of vertebrate microanatomy at the light microscope level as well as an introduction to techniques used for the preparation of materials for histological study.

BIOL 309. Entomology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A field-based course that focuses on insect diversification, identification, natural history and basic biology.

BIOL 310. Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; BIOL 300; CHEM 101; and CHEZ 101, each with a minimum grade of C; and BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212 or STAT 314. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. The basic principles of molecular and applied genetics of plants, animals and microorganisms.

BIOL 312. Invertebrate Zoology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on environmental interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOL 313. Vertebrate Natural History. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, 152 and BIOZ 151, 152, with minimum grades of C. The natural history of vertebrates with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOL 314. Animal Reproduction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151, BIOL and BIOZ 152, and BIOL 300, each with a minimum grade of C. Introduction to basic reproductive anatomy and physiology. Examination of the basic factors that affect reproductive performance and how these factors are used to regulate the reproductive processes of domestic animals and humans.

BIOL 317. Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212 or STAT 314. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An introduction to the basic principles of ecology, including interactions among organisms and influences of the physical environment.

BIOL 318. Evolution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152; BIOZ 151 or LFSC/BNFO 251; BIOZ 152 or LFSC/BNFO 252; CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101, all with a minimum grade of C; BIOL 200, MATH 200, MATH 201, STAT 210, STAT 212 or STAT 314. Biology majors must have completed BIOL 200. An exploration of the theoretical and empirical foundations of evolutionary biology with a focus on the processes driving evolutionary change across all of life.

BIOL 320. Biology of the Seed Plant. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and BIOL and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. The physiology, structure and adaptation of seed plants.

BIOL 321. Plant Development. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. A survey of the developmental changes that take place during the life cycle of lower and higher plants. Emphasis is placed on the control factors that are involved in regulating the ordered changes which take place during development.

BIOL 322. Economic Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and 152 and BIOZ 151 and 152, or equivalents, with minimum grades of C. This class focuses on plant morphology, anatomy, phytochemistry, growth and reproduction through an examination of the biology of economically and culturally important plants, including crops used for foods and beverages, medicines and drugs, fibers, and timber.

BIOL 324. Medicinal Botany. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151; BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152; and BIOL 300, all with a minimum grade of C. Topics include plant anatomy, morphology and reproduction; traditional plant medicine such as Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine; plant defense systems and secondary metabolites; and plant-derived drugs for various illnesses/ailments including cancer, arthritis, depression and diabetes.

BIOL 325. Fungal Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The basic biology of fungi, including growth, structure, genetics, diversity, the commercial uses of fungi and their importance as model organisms. Also discusses the interactions between fungi and plants and fungi and humans.

BIOL 332. Environmental Pollution. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: eight credits in biology. The study of pollution in the environment with emphasis on the procedures for detection and abatement. Crosslisted as: ENVS 330.

BIOL 333. Evolution of the Angiosperms. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151,152 and BIOZ 151, 152, all with minimum grade of C. Application of evolutionary concepts to flowering plants. Topics include speciation concepts, evolution of vegetative and sexual characteristics and an overview of angiosperm diversity to the level of family.

BIOL 335. Global Change Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, all with minimum grade of C. Examines how humans influence biological systems and explores what can be done to adapt to or to mitigate future global change, emphasizing anthropogenic climate change.

BIOL 340. Development and Stem Cells. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and CHEM 102, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology and stem cells of vertebrates, pinpointing the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development and stem cell biology. Significant emphasis on medical aspects of development such as human birth defects, cloning, properties of stem cells and their medical uses, and careers in developmental and stem cell biology.

BIOL 341. Human Evolution. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200 with a minimum grade of C. Introduces the range of human diversity as well as a broad understanding of evolution and evolutionary biology, particularly as it applies to hominid evolution. Specific topics include basic genetics, primatology, paleontology and the hominin fossil record. Crosslisted as: ANTH 301.

BIOL 351. Introduction to Bioinformatics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BNFO 201 and BNFO 300 or permission of instructor. The course will present a practical and theoretical introduction to the tools and techniques needed to obtain and interpret a variety of genome-related data types. The course will include several bioinformatic methods underlying nucleotide and protein sequence alignment, statistical methods for data visualization in R, the types of experimental results commonly encountered in bioinformatics data analysis and the public databases where these data can be accessed. Crosslisted as: BNFO 301.

BIOL 391. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 lecture hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152; and BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 or BIOL 318, each with a minimum grade of C. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 392. Introduction to Research. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 1 demonstration hour. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C. An introduction to the scientific process, including the mechanics of problem definition, information gathering and experimental design. Experimentation is discussed in context with methods of data collection and analysis. Aims are to prepare the student for future research experiences and to have the student write detailed research proposals.

BIOL 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; 1-2 independent study hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. A maximum of two credits may be earned between BIOL 395 and BIOZ 395; maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. This course may not apply as a laboratory experience. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 401. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: 300 and 317, each with a minimum grade of C. The biology and chemical activities of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, virus and fungi) of industrial, pharmaceutical and agricultural importance.

BIOL 402. Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. 5 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 4 laboratory hours. 5 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and BIOL 318, each with a minimum grade of C. The evolution of vertebrate forms as demonstrated by anatomical studies of selected vertebrate types.

BIOL 403. Primatology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: ANTH 210 or ANTH 301/BIOL 341. Primatology investigates the taxonomic relationships among primates through comparative anatomy, comparative behavior and comparative biochemistry. Study of primate evolution, demography, subsistence, reproduction, social organization, communication systems and ecology. Crosslisted as: ANTH 403.

BIOL 411. Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and CHEM 301, each with a minimum grade of C. Focuses on the characterization and understanding of the function and mechanisms of major physiological systems, primarily using human physiology as a model. Emphasis is placed on understanding how different physiological systems work together to maintain homeostasis and predicting the consequences of damaging or deleting system components that can occur in diseases and injuries.

BIOL 413. Parasitology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. The epidemiology and pathological effects of eukaryotic parasites, including parasite life cycles and host-parasite relationships.

BIOL 415. Mangrove Avian Field Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; two weeks abroad in Panama (or other tropical location with mangrove forests) followed by class meetings two days per week throughout most of spring semester. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317. An immersive study of tropical ecology with a focus on bird ecology and conservation of mangrove ecosystems through a unique blend of rigorous science and community engagement. Two weeks of study abroad, including engagement with local conservation organizations and participation in education outreach with local schools, followed by discussion, data analysis and presentation of progress and research in a public symposium on campus.

BIOL 416. Ornithology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an integrative study of birds, including avian evolution and diversity, general anatomy and physiology, behavior, and ecology.

BIOL 417. Mammalogy. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 218 and 317 with minimum grades of C. Study of the characteristics, adaptive radiation and distribution of mammals, with emphasis on North American forms.

BIOL 420. Yeast and Fermentation. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Corequisites: BIOL 303 and BIOL 310. Addresses the basic biology of yeast used in brewing beer and briefly in wine production. Topics will include yeast properties such as growth, structure, genetics, biodiversity and natural habitats. The process of wine and beer production will be discussed. Laboratory sessions include basic microbiology techniques, yeast isolations and characterization using DNA and biochemical methods, as well as the study of factors that affect fermentation. At the end of the course the students will give a presentation on other fermentation products of their interest such as vinegar, bread, etc., providing an expanded version of this important process.

BIOL 422. Forest Ecology. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Covers the fundamentals of forest ecology, with a particular emphasis on Virginia’s diverse forest ecosystems. Students gain an understanding of the principal controls on forest structure, growth and distribution and relate these principles to sustainable forest management.

BIOL 423. Plant Physiology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151; BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152; and BIOL 300 or equivalents, all with minimum grades of C. Physiology of higher plants at molecular, cellular and organism level. Topics include transport processes, metabolism, growth, stress responses and plant-soil interactions.

BIOL 425. Field Botany. 3 Hours.Play VideoPlay course video for Field Botany [View Image]

Semester course; 2 lecture hours and 3 laboratory hours.(60 percent online, 40 percent field/laboratory) 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 and BIOL 317, both with minimum grades of C. Online lectures, discussions, reflections and assessments in conjunction with field experience. Explores the effects of environmental conditions on plant morphology and adaptations, with emphasis on plant anatomy, plant physiology and ecology.

BIOL 430. Invasion Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive view of the ecology and impacts of invasive species. Integrates the effects of historical human demography, ecological disturbance, natural history, species interactions, barriers to invasion, invasive species management and impacts on natural communities and ecosystems.

BIOL 431. Introduction to Marine Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. An introduction to physical, chemical and geological oceanography and a more detailed treatment of the organisms and ecological processes involved in the pelagic and benthic environments of the world's oceans and estuaries.

BIOL 435. Herpetology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The evolution, ecology, structure, taxonomy and behavior of reptiles and amphibians.

BIOL 438. Forensic Molecular Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 310 with a minimum grade of C. Provides an understanding of molecular biology testing methodologies as applied to analysis of forensic samples. Current topics in forensic DNA analysis will include quality assurance, DNA databanking, contemporary research and population genetics. Crosslisted as: FRSC 438.

BIOL 440. Developmental Biology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and 310, each with a minimum grade of C. Basic principles of developmental biology focused on vertebrate model organisms with an emphasis on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide development.

BIOL 445. Neurobiology and Behavior. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. The study of animal behavior stressing ecological, evolutionary and neurobiological approaches.

BIOL 448. Neuroscience. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 310. An examination of the basic structure of the nervous system, nervous system operation on a cellular and molecular level and the formation of the nervous system during development.

BIOL 450. Biology of Cancer I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 451. Biology of Cancer II. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 450 and instructor's permission. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. An examination of the cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of cancer development, progression and treatment.

BIOL 452. Biology of Drugs. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Explores how drugs modulate biological signaling pathways to study, cure, enhance and intoxicate organisms. An introduction to basic pharmacology that largely focuses on human pathways and diseases. Topics include major drug classes (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, etc.) and drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, etc.).

BIOL 453. Cancer Biology Thesis. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 1 recitation and 12 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 451. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the instructor and research mentor. Students will benefit from invaluable learning opportunities in cancer research including hands-on learning, direct mentorship from a VCU faculty member, scientific writing skills, time and research project management, and exposure to and training in various laboratory techniques. In addition, students will gain experience in preparation of a cancer research proposal and thesis.

BIOL 455. Immunology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C or PHIS 309. A comprehensive introduction to the immune system of higher animals, emphasizing the molecular and cellular basis for antibody-medicated immunity.

BIOL 459. Infectious Disease Ecology. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOL 152, BIOZ 151, BIOZ 152 and BIOL 317, all with minimum grade of C. A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the causes and consequences of infectious disease at levels from individual organisms to global scale. Examines the history of infectious disease ecology in human and nonhuman populations. Students learn about the roles of transmission and coevolution in infectious disease ecology and how population models are used to inform management of epidemics and emerging infectious diseases.

BIOL 460. Human Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 318 or BIOL 341 with a minimum grade of C. The origin and genetic history of modern humans, our historic colonization and migration, the utility of the Human Genome Project, our differences from other primates, adaptation to our environment and disease, and the ethical implications of genetic research in our society.

BIOL 475. Biology Capstone Seminar: ____. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 seminar hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 and BIOL 318, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to biology majors with senior standing. Students read assigned topical papers before class, prepare critical analyses, discuss and debate selected positions. See Schedule of Classes for specific topics.

BIOL 477. Biology Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 and BIOL 318, each with a minimum grade of C; and 90 hours of undergraduate course work. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken concurrently with this course: BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495, BIOL 497 or other courses, including topics courses, which include the core competencies required for a capstone experience and are approved by the chair of the Department of Biology. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 480. Animal-Plant Interactions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, or permission of the instructor. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of interactions among animals and plants.

BIOL 482. Preceptor Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students who have completed the relevant course for which they will be a teaching assistant with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor and departmental chair also required prior to registration. Teaching assistants will enhance their knowledge of course content and develop skills that are natural to an instructional role, an understanding of the learning process within a discipline and the ability to explain the importance and value of course content to a novice audience. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 484. Research Assistant Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 hours. 0 credits. Enrollment is restricted to students with permission of the departmental chair and limited to students for whom a research supervisor has agreed to be a mentor. Helps facilitate student involvement in research laboratories within the Department of Biology. Students will gain hands-on experience including data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 489. Communicating Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL 495, senior standing. An opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective communication of their research in writing. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities including preparation of figures for publication and the crafting of a research paper with correct usage of the primary literature. Students will use this as an opportunity to aid the writing of their thesis for BIOL 495.

BIOL 490. Presenting Research. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisite: Completion of the Biocore with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisites: BIOL 492 or 495, and senior standing. Opportunity for students to develop skills necessary for effective oral presentation of their research work. Includes a variety of seminar discussions and activities such as preparation of visual materials and statistical analysis of data. Students will make several oral presentations directly related to their specific BIOL 492 or 495 projects.

BIOL 491. Topics in Biology. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 300. A study of a selected topic in biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOL 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 independent study hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology. May be repeated for credit. A maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Projects should include data collection and analysis, learning field and/or laboratory techniques, and/or mastering experimental procedures, all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. A final report must be submitted at the completion of the project.

BIOL 493. Biology Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; 1-3 field experience hours. 1-3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 310 or 317 with minimum grades of C; and permission of the chair of the Department of Biology and of the agency, company or organization in which internship will be held. May be repeated for credit. Students may take a maximum of three credits per semester; maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. One credit is awarded for each 100 hours of work experience in professional biology setting. Internship designed to provide laboratory or field experience in an off-campus professional biology setting. A final report must be submitted upon completion of the internship. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOL 495. Research and Thesis. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 research hours. 1-4 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 392, permission of the supervising faculty member and a research proposal acceptable to the departmental chair. Corequisite: BIOL 489 or BIOL 490. May be repeated for a maximum of eight credits. Students may take a maximum of four credits per semester; maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. A minimum of four credits is required for honors in biology. Activities include field and/or laboratory research under the direct supervision of a faculty mentor. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Research projects must include experimental design and analysis of data. This course must be taken for two consecutive semesters starting in the fall. A written thesis of substantial quality is required upon completion of the research.

BIOL 496. Biology Preceptorship: ____. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 practicum hours. 2 credits. May be repeated with a different course for credit. Enrollment restricted to students who have completed the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of instructor is required prior to registration. Preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not limited to, attending class, conducting review sessions and preparing course study/review materials. Graded as pass/fail. A maximum of four combined credits from BIOL 496 and BIOL 499 may be applied to degree requirements.

BIOL 497. Ecological Service Learning. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. A service-learning course coupled to course content and material taught in BIOL 317. Students will seek out ecologically relevant opportunities with local, state and federal community partners who will provide experiences to enhance academic enrichment and personal growth and will help foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 20 service-learning hours with community partner(s).

BIOL 498. Insects and Plants Service-learning. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 field experience hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 317 or BIOL 318 with a minimum grade of C, and permission of the instructor. A service-learning course related to insect-plant interactions. Field experience with community partners, including public parks, botanical gardens and organic farms. Designed to expand academic instruction, enhance personal growth and foster a sense of civic responsibility. Students must complete a minimum of 40 service-learning hours with a community partner.

BIOL 499. Biology Lead Preceptorship. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 2 practicum hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 496 in the same course with a grade of Pass. Enrollment is restricted to students who have completed the relevant course with a minimum grade of B and who have a minimum cumulative GPA of 3.0. Permission of the instructor is required prior to registration. Lead preceptors assist instructors in lecture (BIOL) or laboratory (BIOZ) courses. Responsibilities cumulate beyond those required in the prerequisite course. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not are limited to, organizing preceptor teams for large enrollment courses, preceptor mentorship, data entry of course materials, execution of group work, etc. Graded as pass/fail. A maximum of four combined credits from BIOL 496 and BIOL 499 may be applied to degree requirements.

Biology Lab (BIOZ)

BIOZ 101. Biological Concepts Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 101, 151 or 152. Laboratory exercise correlated with BIOL 101. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 151. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisite: MATH 141, MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201 or a satisfactory score on the math placement exam; and CHEM 100 with a minimum grade of B, CHEM 101 with a minimum grade of C or a satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam. Corequisite: BIOL 151. Laboratory investigation of cellular metabolism, genetics and molecular biology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 151.

BIOZ 152. Introduction to Biological Science Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 151, BIOZ 151 and CHEM 101, each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: BIOL 152. Laboratory investigation of evolutionary concepts, evolution of organisms, biological diversity and ecology, with an emphasis on formation and testing of hypotheses. Laboratory exercises will elaborate themes discussed in BIOL 152.

BIOZ 201. Human Biology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 201. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 201 Human Biology. Exercises emphasize the structure, function and disorders of human body systems, principles of human genetics and inheritance, and human evolution and ecology. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 209. Medical Microbiology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 209. Techniques to culture, isolate and identify microbes with related topics such as water coliform tests, and antibiotics and disinfectant sensitivity testing. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Biology.

BIOZ 303. Microbiology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 303. Laboratory application of techniques and concepts in microbiology. Emphasis is placed on techniques to isolate, culture and identify bacteria; genetics and molecular biology of bacteria; safety and aseptic protocols; assays for antibiotic and disinfectant susceptibility.

BIOZ 307. Aquatic Ecology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 317, CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 307. Laboratory and field studies of the biota of aquatic habitats and their relationship with the environment.

BIOZ 310. Laboratory in Genetics. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200; and BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152, each with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 310. Demonstrates the laws and molecular basis of heredity through exercises and experiments that use a variety of organisms.

BIOZ 312. Invertebrate Zoology Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 312. A laboratory survey of the invertebrate animals, with emphasis on environment interactions. A weekend trip to a marine environment is required.

BIOZ 313. Vertebrate Natural History Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 313. Laboratory exercises focusing on the natural history of vertebrates, with emphasis on the species native to Virginia.

BIOZ 317. Ecology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL and BIOZ 151 and 152, and UNIV 200 or HONR 200; all with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 317. A field-oriented course that provides experience in ecological research, including experimental design, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.

BIOZ 321. Plant Development Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 321. An experimental approach applied to a phylogenetic survey of developmental model systems. Observational and experimental protocols will be used to collect data and gather information. Problem-solving skills will be utilized to analyze and present experimental results.

BIOZ 324. Medicinal Botany Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 3 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151; BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152; and BIOL 300, all with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 324. Introduces basic plant biology concepts, plant diversity and systematics, and various medicinal plant species, compounds and properties.

BIOZ 341. Human Evolution Lab. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Corequisite: BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Laboratory exercises correlated with BIOL 341/ANTH 301. Exercises emphasize comparative primate and fossil anatomy, morphology and behavior, as well as practice in recognizing and applying evolutionary principles in human evolution. Crosslisted as: ANTZ 301.

BIOZ 391. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; 1-4 laboratory hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 300, BIOL 310, BIOL 317 or BIOL 318, with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

BIOZ 395. Directed Study. 1-2 Hours.

Semester course; 1-2 independent study hours. 1-2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOZ 151 and BIOZ 152 with minimum grades of C, permission of the Department of Biology and research mentor. A maximum of two credits may be earned between BIOL 395 and BIOZ 395; maximum total of six credits for all research and internship courses (BIOL 395, BIOL 451, BIOL 453, BIOL 492, BIOL 493, BIOL 495 and/or BIOZ 395) may be applied to the the 40 credits of biology required for the major. Additional credits from these courses may be applied to upper-level and open elective credits toward the degree. A minimum of two credits is required for the course to count as a laboratory experience. Mentors are not limited to faculty members within the Department of Biology, but the context of the research study must be applicable to the biological sciences as determined by the department. Studies should include directed readings, directed experimentation or advanced guided inquiry — all under the direct supervision of a faculty member. A minimum of three hours of supervised activity per week per credit hour is required. Graded as pass/fail.

BIOZ 416. Ornithology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: BIOL 317 with a minimum grade of C. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL 416. A field-oriented course that develops basic skills in bird identification by sight and sound for a variety of regional taxa with emphasis on avian anatomy and adaptations for flight. Students conduct an independent or small-group research project on a question of their choice relating to avian ecology or behavior, including experimental design, data collection and analysis, and a final project presentation.

BIOZ 418. Integrative Physiology Laboratory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 recitation and 3 laboratory hours (hybrid course taught mostly on campus). 3 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 151 and BIOZ 151; BIOL 152 and BIOZ 152; and BIOL 300; or equivalents, all with minimum grades of C. Corequisite: BIOL 411 or BIOL 423. A comparative laboratory investigation of physiological responses across plant and animal taxa, with application to changing environmental conditions and ecological interactions. Topics include metabolism, water balance, gas exchange, resource allocation and chemical signaling.

BIOZ 438. Forensic Molecular Biology Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Pre- or corequisite: BIOL/FRSC 438. Provides comprehensive coverage of the various types of DNA testing currently used in forensic science laboratories. Students will have hands-on experience with the analytical equipment employed in forensic science laboratories and the techniques for human identification in forensic casework. Students also will explore and practice both scientific writing and writing of DNA case reports. Crosslisted as: FRSZ 438.

BIOZ 476. Molecular Capstone Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 and BIOL 310, each with a minimum grade of C; and 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Application of basic methods used in cellular and molecular biology to the investigation of topics of current biological interest. Emphasis on experimental design, data collection and analysis, communication skills, critical thinking, and ethical and social responsibility.

BIOZ 491. Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 300 with a minimum grade of C. Laboratory investigations in a selected topic of biology. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

Chemistry (CHEM)

CHEM 100. Introductory Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 problem session hour. 3 credits. Prerequisite: students must be eligible to take MATH 131 or higher. A course in the elementary principles of chemistry for individuals who do not meet the criteria for enrollment in CHEM 101; required for all students without a high school chemistry background who need to take CHEM 101-102. These credits may not be used to satisfy any chemistry course requirements in the College of Humanities and Sciences.

CHEM 101. General Chemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 141, MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201 or satisfactory score on the VCU mathematics placement test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course; and CHEM 100 with a minimum grade of B or satisfactory score on the chemistry placement exam/assessment within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry.

CHEM 102. General Chemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 151, MATH 200, MATH 201 or satisfactory score on the VCU Mathematics Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course; and CHEM 101 with a minimum grade of C. Fundamental principles and theories of chemistry, including qualitative analysis.

CHEM 110. Chemistry and Society. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are presented through the use of decision-making activities related to real-world societal issues. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM 112. Chemistry in the News. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. The basic principles of chemistry are used to interpret newspaper and magazine articles of current interest relating to chemistry in manufacturing, the global environment and medicine. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry.

CHEM 301. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM 302: CHEM 301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM 302. Organic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Continuous courses; 3 lecture hours. 3-3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C. Prerequisite for CHEM 302: CHEM 301 with a minimum grade of C. A comprehensive survey of aliphatic and aromatic compounds with emphasis on their structure, properties, reactions, reaction mechanisms and stereochemistry.

CHEM 303. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 309 or CLSE 201 with minimum grades of C, and PHYS 202 or PHYS 208, and MATH 201 or MATH 301 or MATH 307. Ideal and nonideal gases, thermodynamics, free energy and chemical equilibrium.

CHEM 304. Physical Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 303 with a minimum grade of C. Kinetics, solution thermodynamics, heterogeneous equilibria, electrochemistry and introductory biophysical chemistry.

CHEM 305. Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301-302 and CHEM 309 with minimum grades of C; and MATH 200. Concepts and principles of physical chemistry as related to the life sciences, forensic science and the B.S in science programs. Major topics include thermodynamics of proteins and nucleic acids, enzyme kinetics and spectroscopic techniques useful in biophysical research such as circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging.

CHEM 306. Industrial Applications of Inorganic Chemistry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302. Chemical engineering students: EGRC 201 and EGRC 205. A study and analysis of the most important industrial applications of inorganic chemistry, with emphasis on structure/properties correlation, materials and energy balance, availability and logistics of starting materials, economic impact and environmental effects. Crosslisted as: CLSE 306.

CHEM 308. Intensified Problem-solving in Quantitative Analysis. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 workshop hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C; and MATH 151. Corequisite: CHEM 309. Designed to improve student comprehension and success in CHEM 309 and CHEZ 309. Problem-solving sessions encompass the fundamental topics in chemical analysis that involve the theory and practice of gravimetric, volumetric and instrumental analysis techniques, including the treatment of multiple equilibria in aqueous solutions. Students form and work in small in-class study groups where they engage in cooperative learning activities as facilitated by the instructor. Each student participates in the discussion and presentation of problem solutions to the class. Students are given mock quizzes and exams and receive assistance on homework problems assigned in the quantitative chemistry lecture.

CHEM 309. Quantitative Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 with a minimum grade of C, and MATH 151. Theory and practice of gravimetric, volumetric and instrumental analysis techniques and treatment of multiple equilibria in aqueous solutions.

CHEM 310. Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 302. This course is designed to expose undergraduate chemistry, biology and pre-medicine majors to the history, theory and practice of medicinal chemistry. The course will emphasize a combination of fundamentals and applications of drug design. In particular, the molecular aspects of drug action will be discussed. Special emphasis will also be placed on the methods used by medicinal chemists to design new drugs. Crosslisted as: MEDC 310.

CHEM 313. Physical Chemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 201; MATH 307; PHYS 202 or PHYS 208; CHEM 302; and CHEM 309, all with a minimum grade of C. Quantum chemistry, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy. Students may receive credit toward graduation for only one of CHEM 313 or CHEM 314.

CHEM 314. Physical Chemistry I with Math Modules. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: MATH 201; PHYS 202 or PHYS 208; CHEM 302; and CHEM 309, all with a minimum grade of C. Quantum chemistry, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy. Presents multivariate calculus concepts necessary for physical chemistry. Students may receive credit toward graduation for only one of CHEM 313 or CHEM 314.

CHEM 315. Physical Chemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 313 or CHEM 314 with a minimum grade of C. Kinetic theory of gases, statistical and classical thermodynamics, kinetics.

CHEM 320. Inorganic Chemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 with minimum grades of C. A systematic, unified study of the structures, properties, reactions and practical applications of inorganic compounds.

CHEM 350. Guided Inquiry in Chemistry. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 with minimum grades of B. Student facilitators lead recitation sections using guided inquiry, group-based activities. Introduces students to the principles of guided inquiry, active learning and collaborative learning in chemistry through practical, hands-on class work, discussions, readings and a final project.

CHEM 351. Chemistry Preceptorship. 1.5 Hour.

Semester course; 1.5 lecture hours. 1.5 credits. Course may be repeated once for a total of 3 credits. Prerequisites: completion of relevant course with minimum grade of C, completion of CHEM 350 with a grade of B and permission of course instructor and departmental chair. Student facilitators lead recitation sections or laboratories in chemistry courses. Responsibilities vary and may include, but are not limited to, attending all classes, holding weekly review sessions or office hours and/or routine grading. A weekly reflection journal and final project are required.

CHEM 391. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM 101-102 and CHEZ 101, 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

CHEM 392. Directed Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports are required.

CHEM 398. Professional Practices and Perspectives Seminar. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture hour. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to chemistry majors with at least sophomore standing. Seminar course for students considering careers in chemistry-related fields, covering topics such as scientific professionalism and ethics and using chemical literature.

CHEM 401. Applications of Instrumental Techniques in Organic and Forensic Chemistry. 4 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 4 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302. Theory and laboratory practice of instrumental and chemical methods applied to the analysis of organic compounds with emphasis on applications in forensic chemistry.

CHEM 403. Biochemistry I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of structural biochemistry, enzymology, biophysical techniques, bioenergetics and an introduction to intermediary metabolism.

CHEM 404. Biochemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 403 with a minimum grade of C. A presentation of metabolism and its regulation as integrated catoblism and anoblism of molecules that are essential to life.

CHEM 406. Inorganic Chemistry II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 313 or CHEM 314; and CHEM 320. An advanced study of inorganic chemistry, including inorganic spectroscopy, organometallic compounds and catalysis, and bioinorganic systems.

CHEM 409. Instrumental Analysis. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 313, CHEM 314 or CHEM 315; and CHEM 309 and CHEZ 309. Theory and practice of modern spectrophotometric, electroanalytical and chromatographic and nuclear magnetic resonance methods.

CHEM 491. Topics in Chemistry. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 4 credits per semester; maximum total of 6 credits for all chemistry topics courses may be applied to the major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. A study of a selected topic in chemistry. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester and prerequisites.

CHEM 492. Independent Study. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated for a maximum total of 8 credits; only 3 credits are applicable to the chemistry major. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. The independent investigation of chemical problems through readings and experimentation under the supervision of a research adviser. Written interim and final reports required.

CHEM 493. Chemistry Internship. 1-3 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. Variable credit. Maximum of 3 credits; 1 credit will be given for each 150 hours (approximately one month) of part-time or full-time chemical work experience. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 101 and 102. Acquisition of chemistry laboratory experience through involvement in a professional chemistry setting. Written progress and final reports will be required.

CHEM 498. Honors Thesis. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 credit. Prerequisites: completion of 29 credits in chemistry, including CHEM 398 and at least six credits of CHEM 492. Students submit to the Department of Chemistry a thesis based on their independent study research. Students also present their results to the department as a research seminar.

CHEM 499. Chemistry Capstone Experience. 0 Hours.

Semester course; 0 hours. 0 credits. Prerequisites: CHEZ 302, CHEZ 309, CHEM 320, CHEM 398, CHEM 313 or CHEM 314, and CHEZ 313 or CHEZ 315, each with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to chemistry majors with 90 credit hours of undergraduate course work. Culminating course that requires two credits of advanced laboratory and three credits of advanced lecture. The following courses qualify as a capstone experience if taken concurrently with CHEM 499: any two-credit 400-level laboratory course or two credits of either CHEM 392 or CHEM 492; and any three-credit 400-level or 500-level chemistry lecture course. Graded as pass/fail.

Chemistry Lab (CHEZ)

CHEZ 101. General Chemistry Laboratory I. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 101. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 101 with selected forensic science applications. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 102. General Chemistry Laboratory II. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Prerequisites: CHEM 101 and CHEZ 101 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 102. Experimental work includes qualitative analysis with selected forensic science applications. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 110. Chemistry and Society Laboratory. 1 Hour.

Semester course; 2 laboratory hours. 1 credit. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 110. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 110. Not applicable for credit toward the B.S. in Chemistry. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 301. Organic Chemistry Laboratory I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 301. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 301. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 302. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and CHEZ 301 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 302. Experimental work correlated with CHEM 302. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 303. Physical Chemistry Laboratory I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102. Pre- or corequisites: CHEM 303, 309 and CHEZ 309. This course covers experiments in calorimetry, molecular and thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids, surfaces, electrochemistry, equilibria, polymers, phase diagrams, and biophysical chemistry. Extensive report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required.

CHEZ 304. Physical Chemistry Laboratory II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 303, 309 and CHEZ 303, 309. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 304. This course covers experiments in absorption and emission spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, kinetics, photochemistry, biophysical chemistry and modeling. Report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required.

CHEZ 309. Quantitative Analysis Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 102 and CHEZ 102 with minimum grades of C. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 309. Laboratory associated with quantitative analysis. Includes practice in volumetric and instrumental laboratory techniques as applied to measurement sciences.

CHEZ 313. Physical Chemistry Laboratory I. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEZ 309 and UNIV 200, each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CHEM 313 or CHEM 314. Mathematical models of chemistry, including molecular structure, spectroscopy and kinetics. Report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required. Students may receive credit toward graduation for only one of CHEZ 313 or CHEZ 315.

CHEZ 315. Physical Chemistry Laboratory II. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEZ 309 and UNIV 200, each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CHEM 315. Mathematical models of chemistry, including thermodynamics, spectroscopy and kinetics. Report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project may be required. Students may receive credit toward graduation for only one of CHEZ 313 or CHEZ 315.

CHEZ 400. Exploring the Frontiers of Chemistry: Research Methods. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEZ 302; CHEM 309 and CHEZ 309; CHEM 320; and CHEM 398, all with a minimum grade of C. Enrollment is restricted to students with 90 undergraduate credit hours. Introduction to the process of performing cutting-edge research in chemistry through the design, execution and presentation of a research project. A final presentation is required.

CHEZ 404. Biochemistry Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 403; CHEZ 302; and CHEZ 313 or CHEZ 315; each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CHEM 404. Fundamental biochemistry laboratory techniques. Report and laboratory notebook writing are emphasized. A final presentation is required.

CHEZ 406. Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 1 lecture and 3 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 320 and CHEZ 102. Pre- or corequisite: CHEM 406. Examination of inorganic nonmetal, transition metal and organometallic compounds using modern inorganic methods of synthesis and characterization. Each student is charged for breakage incurred. Approved safety glasses are required. Failure to check out of laboratory upon withdrawal or for other reasons will incur a charge billed from the Student Accounting Department.

CHEZ 409. Instrumental Analysis Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 313 or CHEM 314; and CHEZ 313 or CHEZ 315, each with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CHEM 409. Practice of electrochemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods of analysis.

CHEZ 413. Advanced Physical Chemistry Laboratory. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisites: CHEM 313 or CHEM 314; and CHEZ 313, all with a minimum grade of C. Corequisite: CHEM 315. Atomic and molecular spectroscopy and structure. Report writing, laboratory notebook writing and statistical analysis of data are emphasized. A final project and presentation are required.

CHEZ 451. Developing Instructional Experiments in Chemistry. 2 Hours.

Semester course; 4 laboratory hours. 2 credits. Prerequisite: CHEM 351 with a minimum grade of C. Student preceptors help lead a general chemistry laboratory section and select an experiment to develop for a chemistry laboratory course. A final project and presentation focused on experiment development is required.

Chinese (CHIN)

CHIN 101. Beginning Chinese I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Enrollment requires any student with previous exposure to Chinese to take the placement test to determine eligibility. For students with no prior knowledge of Chinese. Beginning grammar, reading, writing and oral skills.

CHIN 102. Beginning Chinese II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 101 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Continuation of beginning grammar, reading, writing and oral skills.

CHIN 110. Intensive Elementary Chinese. 8 Hours.

Semester course; 10 lecture and 10 laboratory hours. 8 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 101 and 102 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 101-102 series or CHIN 110, but not both.

CHIN 201. Intermediate Chinese I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 102 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Chinese. Building toward intermediate-level cultural competence and proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing through authentic materials.

CHIN 202. Intermediate Chinese II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 201 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Mandarin Chinese. Increasing intermediate-level cultural competence and proficiency in listening, speaking, reading and writing through authentic materials.

CHIN 210. Intensive Intermediate Chinese. 6 Hours.

Semester course; 6 lecture hours. 6 credits. This intensive course combines CHIN 201 and 202 into a single-semester class. Students may receive credit toward graduation for either the CHIN 201-202 series or CHIN 210, but not both.

CHIN 300. Communication and Composition. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 202 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Mandarin Chinese. Building toward intermediate-high proficiency in the three modes of communication: interpretive, interpersonal and presentational. Authentic materials enhance intercultural competence and communication skills. This course is not intended for native speakers.

CHIN 301. Self and Society: Effective Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 202, CHIN 300 or a satisfactory score on the VCU Language Placement Test within the one-year period immediately preceding the beginning of the course. Conducted in Mandarin Chinese. Students advance their knowledge of the Chinese language and Chinese-speaking cultures while developing their reading and writing skills. Students examine a variety of texts and media and gain strategies for interpretation and discussion, with a focus on effective writing. This course is not intended for native speakers.

CHIN 391. Topics in Chinese. 1-4 Hours.

Semester course; variable hours. 1-4 credits. May be repeated with different topics for a maximum of 16 credits. Prerequisite: CHIN 202 or 210. An in-depth study of selected topics in Chinese. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered each semester.

Critical Social Inquiry and Justice Studies (CSIJ)

CSIJ 200. Race and Racism in America. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 2 lecture and 1 recitation hours. 3 credits. Interrogates four key areas of inquiry: origins, ideology, maintenance and resistance to race and racism in the U.S., and applies an intersectional lens to examine how race interlocks with other systems of power. Reflecting the diverse faculty and students who co-created it, this course will draw from a variety of scholarly disciplines spanning the humanities and the social, natural and applied sciences to explore these issues and to help students understand how racism operates in the U.S. Lecture will be delivered asynchronously online and students will attend one weekly 50-minute recitation section. Graded as pass/fail.

English (ENGL)

ENGL 201. Western World Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of Western cultures from the ancient world through the Renaissance, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 202. Western World Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of Western cultures from the end of the Renaissance to the present, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 203. British Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of the British Isles from the Middle Ages through the 18th century, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 204. British Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of the British Isles from the late 18th century to the present, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 205. American Literature I. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of the United States from its origins through the 1860s, emphasizing connections among representative works.

ENGL 206. American Literature II. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the literature of the United States from the 1860s to the present, emphasizing connections among the representative works.

ENGL 211. Contemporary World Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. A study of selected literature published in the past 25 years and chosen from a number of different nations and cultures. Crosslisted as: INTL 211.

ENGL 214. English Grammar and Usage. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 111 and UNIV 112. An intensive study of English grammar, usage, punctuation, mechanics and spelling.

ENGL 215. Reading Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An inquiry into literary and cultural texts, emphasizing critical thinking and close reading. Individual sections may survey a portion of literary history or focus on a theme or unifying question.

ENGL 217. Reading New Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to literary texts published in the new century.

ENGL 236. Women in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to literature by and/or about women. Crosslisted as: GSWS 236.

ENGL 250. Reading Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Develops students' visual literacy by exploring and analyzing the various elements of film (cinematography, lighting, editing, art direction, acting and sound, among others). Examples will be drawn from both U.S. and world cinema and from all eras of filmmaking.

ENGL 291. Topics in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Maximum 6 credits in all topics courses at the 200 level. Prerequisite: UNIV 112 or both ENGL 295 and HONR 200. An introduction to literature through the in-depth study of a selected topic or genre. See the Schedule of Classes for specific topics to be offered.

ENGL 295. The Reading and Writing of Fiction and Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. An introduction to the basic elements of writing poetry and fiction, using published examples of contemporary fiction and verse as guides in the study of literary form and the production of original creative writing. Students will be offered a practitioner's perspective on genre conventions and the process of revision.

ENGL 301. Introduction to the English Major. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Study of literature focused on skills helpful in the English major, introducing students to the ways in which language is used in literary texts and to the practice of writing responses to those texts. Texts will represent at least two genres (drama, poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction). This course should be taken at the beginning of the student's major, preferably before completing more than six hours of other upper-level English courses. Majors are required to take ENGL 301; they must achieve a minimum grade of C to complete the requirement.

ENGL 302. Legal Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. Intensive practice in writing on subjects related to law or legal problems. Emphasis on organization, development, logical flow and clarity of style. May not be used to satisfy the literature requirement of the College of Humanities and Sciences. Crosslisted as: CRJS 302.

ENGL 303. Writing for Stage and/or Screen. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A workshop in playwriting or screenwriting primarily for students who have not yet completed a full-length dramatic work. Students will present a portfolio of work at the end of each course.

ENGL 304. Persuasive Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An advanced study of persuasive prose techniques, with attention to the relationships among content, form and style. Students consider rhetorical techniques used across various genres, and produce and support compelling claims that persuade and inform. They will also acquire skills to interpret, assess and analyze strategies used in a variety of texts. Specific topics vary by section and instructor.

ENGL 305. Writing Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An introduction to the craft of writing poetry. Students will explore the elements of poetic technique and produce a volume of quality work.

ENGL 307. Writing Fiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A fiction workshop primarily for students who have not produced a portfolio of finished creative work. Students will present a collection of their work at the end of each course.

ENGL 309. Writing Creative Nonfiction. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A creative nonfiction workshop primarily for students who have not produced a portfolio of finished creative work. Students will present a collection of their work at the end of each course.

ENGL 310. Professional Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: UNIV 200 or HONR 200. An introduction to writing practices common to for-profit and/or not-for-profit organizations. Students hone foundational writing and design skills to communicate effectively with specific audiences across multiple media. Depending on the instructor, this course prepares students to assess and craft effective job application materials, workplace correspondence and other business documents, including digital texts and/or websites.

ENGL 311. Introduction to Literary Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Introduces students to the variety of critical methods that are sometimes employed — often subconsciously or habitually — in writing about literature. Requires students to think abstractly and theoretically about the nature of the literary text, but it also gives students valuable practice in mastering different critical methods through close engagements with short stories, poems and plays.

ENGL 313. Popular Culture Studies:_____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credit hours. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the popular culture of a specific time period, a particular form or an orchestrated phenomenon, with attention paid to the producers, audiences and meanings of the texts. Topics will vary by section.

ENGL 315. Fan Fiction Studies:_____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the phenomenon of fan fiction as understood as a disciplinary field. Focuses on creative works and other forms of engagement responding to originating texts in diverse media. Topics will vary by section.

ENGL 320. Early Literary Traditions. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of early and medieval literature such as epic, romance, saga or lyric poetry written in England or influencing English literature prior to 1500.

ENGL 321. English Drama From 900 to 1642. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the origin of the English drama and its development until the closing of the theaters in 1642, exclusive of Shakespeare.

ENGL 322. Medieval Literature: Old English to Middle English. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of texts in Old and Middle English, and the literary and cultural traditions that influence the rise of English literature over 500 years from the early to the High Middle Ages, or from Bede and Beowulf to Chaucer.

ENGL 324. Late Medieval Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An introduction to the literature of the 15th and 16th centuries. Works surveyed will likely include those of Langland, Julian of Norwich, Kempe, Malory, Henryson, Skelton, More, Tyndale, Foxe, Surrey, Spenser and Sidney.

ENGL 325. Early Modern Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An introduction to the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries, which may include Sidney, Spenser, Donne, Jonson, Lanyer, Wroth, Phillips, Cavendish, Bradstreet, Hutchinson, Milton and Bunyan.

ENGL 326. Shakespeare in Context. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Examines selected works of Shakespeare in historical, political, sociocultural, literary and/or other contexts.

ENGL 330. Restoration and 18th-century Drama. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of English drama from 1660-1777, usually including the comedy of manners, sentimental comedy, ballad opera, farce and heroic and bourgeois tragedy.

ENGL 331. Restoration and 18th-century British Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A survey of representative poetry, drama and prose from the Restoration and 18th century, usually including Behn, Dryden, Pope, Swift, Johnson and Gay.

ENGL 332. 18th-century British Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the British narratives in the long 18th century, usually including Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Burney, Sterne, Austen, Radcliffe and Walpole.

ENGL 335. British Literature of the Romantic Era. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Exploration of the literature and the cultural phenomenon of Romanticism in Britain during the years 1783-1832, with reading from poets such as Blake, Wordsworth, Byron and Shelley, and from a variety of other writers.

ENGL 336. 19th-century British Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of British narratives of the 19th century, usually including Austen, Dickens, Thackeray, the Brontes, George Eliot and Hardy.

ENGL 337. Victorian Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A survey of the poetry of Victorian Britain, usually including Tennyson, the Brownings, Arnold and the pre-Raphaelites.

ENGL 340. Early 20th-century British Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Representative British and Irish poetry, fiction and drama of the early 20th century, including such writers as Yeats, Joyce, Shaw, Lawrence, Conrad, Auden, Forster and Woolf.

ENGL 341. British Literature and Culture After 1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A British studies course that surveys writing in Britain and Ireland since the mid-20th century, with emphasis on social, economic and ideological contexts. Includes such authors as William Golding, Doris Lessing, Seamus Heaney, Harold Pinter, Philip Larkin, Iris Murdoch, Kazuo Ishiguro, Salman Rushdie and Carol Ann Duffy.

ENGL 342. The Modern Novel. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An examination of the novel, chiefly British and European, in the 20th century.

ENGL 343. Modern Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of British and American poetry in the first half of the 20th century.

ENGL 344. Modern Drama. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the development of Continental, English and American drama since Ibsen.

ENGL 345. Contemporary Poetry. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of British and American poetry from approximately 1945 to the present for the purpose of determining the aesthetic and thematic concerns of contemporary poets.

ENGL 347. Contemporary Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of internationally prominent texts in various genres produced during the past 30 years. Familiarizes students with distinctive properties of literary expression that have emerged in this period, such as the political, historical, economic and social influences that have shaped literary production.

ENGL 350. Digital Rhetoric. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. The study and practice of rhetoric as it applies to digital media.

ENGL 352. Feminist Literary Theory. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. The study of contemporary feminist thought and feminist approaches to analyzing literature and culture. This course examines the history and development of feminist theory as a methodology in the humanities, explores several of the major theoretical trends of the past 30 years and examines applications of feminist theory to specific works of literature. Crosslisted as: GSWS 352.

ENGL 353. Women's Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated for credit once (for a maximum of six credits) when a different group of writers is studied. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of selected literature written by woman-identified writers. Crosslisted as: GSWS 353.

ENGL 354. Queer Literature: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of queer literature. Considers issues of history, theory, aesthetics, politics, authorship and/or interpretive communities and examines the intersection of social identities with particular attention to race/ethnicity, sex, sexual orientation, gender expression, class and/or nationality. Topics will vary by section. Crosslisted as: GSWS 354.

ENGL 355. Black Women Writers. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. Explores the variety of ways African-diasporan women and woman-identified writers gained self-expression in the midst of gender and race oppression from slavery to the present. Also explores the rise of Black feminist discourse as a project of reclaiming and giving voice to writers who had previously been silenced or suppressed. Crosslisted as: GSWS 359.

ENGL 356. Prison Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of prison literature within or across particular time periods and/or geographic places. Explores writings by incarcerated people in consideration of their political, social and economic context.

ENGL 358. Native American and Indigenous Literatures. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of Native and/or indigenous writing and representation from the pre-colonial era to the present. Instructors may choose thematic, geographic, generic or period focus for the course.

ENGL 361. The Bible as Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Literary aspects of the Bible will be considered. Also, attention will be given to the history of the English Bible. Crosslisted as: RELS 361.

ENGL 363. African Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of regional and/or cultural traditions of African literature with special attention paid to socio-political perspectives. Crosslisted as: AFAM 363/INTL 366.

ENGL 364. Mythology and Folklore. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of one or more forms of folklore, such as folktales, fairy tales, legends, myths, proverbs, riddles, ballads and/or games, with some attention to literary, social or historical significance and contexts. This course may also include approaches to collecting material or to examining later literary forms and texts inspired by folklore. Crosslisted as: ANTH 364.

ENGL 365. Caribbean Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A survey of West Indian writings. Attention will be given to African, European and Amerindian influences, as well as to the emergence of a West Indian literary tradition. Crosslisted as: AFAM 365/INTL 367.

ENGL 366. Writing and Social Change: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/workshop hours. 3 credits. May be repeated once for credit with a different topic. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A focused study of the literatures of underserved communities such as those of prisoners, recovering addicts, inner-city teens or immigrants. Students will collaborate with one such community on an original writing project.

ENGL 367. Writing Process and Practice. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture/workshop hours. 3 credits. Prerequisites: UNIV 200 or HONR 200, and ENGL 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 211, 215, 236, 291, or 295. Joins writing theory to writing practice. Students will explore their own writing practice and expand their knowledge of rhetorical processes and the teaching/learning of writing. Covers readings and investigations into theories about writing and the writing process, as well as the principles of working one-on-one with student writers. In the latter part of the semester students will devote two hours per week to peer consulting in the Writing Center.

ENGL 368. Nature Writing. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the literary genre of nature writing in English. Crosslisted as: ENVS 368.

ENGL 369. Illness Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An overview of the history, interpretations and practices of reading and writing illness narratives — through case studies and theoretical perspectives, in fictionalized and nonfiction accounts, from the viewpoint of various actors (doctors, patients, patient families and their caregivers). Students will further examine the role of narrative knowledge in health care. Crosslisted as: SCTS 301.

ENGL 370. Medicine in Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of how the representational practices found in literary works may inform or enhance an understanding of a variety of medical issues.

ENGL 371. American Literary Beginnings. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the most important writings from the founding of the first colonies to the establishment of the federal government with attention to such authors as Bradford, Byrd, Bradstreet, Equiano, Cabeza de Vaca and Franklin.

ENGL 372. U.S. Literature: 1820-1865. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the writings of American authors in the middle decades of the 19th century, with attention to such authors as Poe, Emerson, Thoreau, Stowe, Hawthorne, Melville, Douglass and Whitman.

ENGL 373. U.S. Literature: 1865-1913. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of writings from the end of the Civil War to World War I, with attention to such authors as Dickinson, Clemens, Howell, James, Wharton, Crane, Norris, Dreiser, Chopin and Chesnutt.

ENGL 374. U.S. Literature: Modernism. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the most important writings between World War I and World War II, with attention to such authors as Anderson, Frost, Eliot, Stein, Glasgow, Fitzgerald, Wright, Cather, Hemingway, O'Neill, Hurston, Toomer and Faulkner.

ENGL 375. U.S. Literature After 1945. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of American writings since the end of World War II, with attention to such authors as Albee, Baldwin, Carver, Coover, Ellison, Erdrich, Ginsberg, Lowell, Morrison, Plath, Pynchon, Salinger and Walker.

ENGL 377. 19th-century U.S. Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of selected novels with some attention to other forms of narrative that reflect the experiences of diverse groups in the United States.

ENGL 378. 20th-century U.S. Novels and Narratives. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of selected novels with some attention to other forms of narrative that reflect the experiences of diverse groups of the United States.

ENGL 379. African-American Literature: Beginnings Through the Harlem Renaissance. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An examination of the culture and literature of African Americans from their roots in Africa and the African Diaspora to the Harlem Renaissance. Authors may include Wheatley, Douglass, DuBois, Hurston, Hughes and Cullen. Crosslisted as: AFAM 379.

ENGL 380. Southern Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the literature of the South with attention to writers such as Byrd, Poe, Chopin, Faulkner, Welty, Wolfe, O'Connor, Walker and Percy.

ENGL 381. Multiethnic Literature. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of the literature and culture of multiethnic writers in the United States. May include Native American, Latino/a, African-American, Asian-American and/or Jewish-American authors.

ENGL 382. African-American Literature: Realism to the Present. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. An examination of the culture and literature of African-Americans from the Harlem Renaissance to the present day. Authors may include Wright, Ellison, Hayden, Brooks, Walker and Morrison. Crosslisted as: AFAM 382.

ENGL 383. Short Fiction: ____. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. May be repeated with a different topic for a maximum of six credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250, ENGL 291, ENGL 295 or NEXT 240. A study of short fiction. Topics will vary by section.

ENGL 385. Fiction into Film. 3 Hours.

Semester course; 3 lecture hours. 3 credits. Prerequisite: ENGL 201, ENGL 202, ENGL 203, ENGL 204, ENGL 205, ENGL 206, ENGL 211, ENGL 215, ENGL 236, ENGL 250,