Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Maryanne Collinson

Second Advisor

Sally Hunnicutt

Third Advisor

Sarah Rutan

Fourth Advisor

Suzanne Ruder

Fifth Advisor

Adam Hawkridge


Gradient surfaces exhibit a variation in functionality along the length of the surface. One method for preparing gradients is controlled-rate infusion (CRI). In Part 1 of this work, CRI was used to prepare gradients for the purpose of separating transition and heavy metals. Initial work on this project was focused on controlling the retention of the metal ions by varying the number of amine groups, aminoalkoxysilane concentration, and the infusion time. The retention factors of four metal ions varied predictably with increasing number of amine groups, increasing aminoalkoxysilane concentration, and increasing infusion time, producing small but useful changes in the retention factors. The continuation of this project involved the preparation of two-dimensional multi-component gradients on TLC plates, which were used to separate six transition and heavy metals. The retention, and thus the separation, was affected by the presence or absence of a gradient and the direction of the gradient.

Part 2 of this work focused on understanding the factors that motivated instructors in the early and late stages in the process of change. Instructors who attended the POGIL-PCL (Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory) workshops were asked to complete online surveys. The goals of the first survey were to understand the factors that initially interested instructors in POGIL-PCL, to determine if instructors enter the implementation stage, and to understand the factors that affect how instructors implement POGIL-PCL. Later surveys were designed to explore the development of the POGIL-PCL network and assess whether implementation is sustained over time.


© Stacy Stegall

Is Part Of

VCU University Archives

Is Part Of

VCU Theses and Dissertations

Date of Submission


Available for download on Wednesday, May 11, 2022


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