Defense Date


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Dentistry



First Advisor

William O. Dahlke

Second Advisor

Caroline K. Carrico

Third Advisor

Tiffany Williams

Fourth Advisor

Patrice Wunsch


Purpose: Compare the efficacy of two benzodiazepines (diazepam or midazolam) in combination with meperidine and hydroxyzine for pediatric dental sedation. Methods: A randomized, double blind observation study of behaviors and outcomes related to two sedation groups. Frankl and Houpt behavior scores were recorded at three time points: injection time, initiation of treatment and at the end of treatment. Postoperative phone call surveys were conducted within eight hours of discharge to assess sleep, activity, and behavior. Results: A total of 40 sedation subjects were included in the study, of which 20 were treated with diazepam triple Combination (Di+M+H) and 20 with midazolam triple regime (Mi+M+H). Treatment was successful for 45% of cases with midazolam and 70% with diazepam (P value=.20). Houpt sleep scores were significantly higher for diazepam than midazolam at injection (P-value=.0043) and during treatment (P-value=.0152). Although Frankl scores, Houpt move and Houpt cry scores tended to favor diazepam, none were statistically significantly different. More abnormal behavior was reported with midazolam, though not statistically significant (35% vs 6%, P-value=.0854). Postoperative sleep time was longer for midazolam, but not significantly different (median sleep time: 61 vs 45 minutes, P-value=.2071). Conclusion: The diazepam, meperidine, hydroxyzine triple combination sedation regimen shows promising results as a successful alternative to midazolam triple combination. Longer postoperative monitoring may be required with diazepam, but this study has shown postoperative sleep times to be less than previously reported. Larger sample size is needed to determine if the current trend will be maintained.


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